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(9,133 words)

Author(s): Filoramo, Giovanni | Spiekermann, Hermann | Sänger, Dieter | Rieger, Reinhold | Saarinen, Risto | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Law – VII. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. The use of the term grace has been influenced strongly by the historically innovative Pauline conception. For Paul, grace is a gift, a unique fruit of God's salvific purpose and redemptive action. After the analogy of other redemptive religions, Paul employed this term to denote a fundamental aspect of the salvific action of the deity. In other religion…


(11,471 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Oppenheimer, Aharon | Dan, Joseph | Weder, Hans | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Examination of repentance from the perspective of religious studies must confront the problem that the term itself has no culturally neutral meaning. Many of the phenomena in other religions that Christians tend to call repentance appear in a different light when viewed in the context of different anthropological presuppositions, ¶ so that due weight must be given to the religious anthropology in question. Generally speaking, it is true to say that in almost all non-Christian religions the notion of repentance c…

Babylonian Judaism

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Oppenheimer, Aharon | Cohen, Mark R. | Rejwan, Nissim
[German Version] I. Antiquity – II. Middle Ages – III. Modern Times I. Antiquity The Jewish community in Babylonia was the oldest in the Diaspora. From the days of the biblical Exile, it existed without interruption throughout antiquity. The decentralized, quasi-feudal structure of the state in Babylonia during the Parthian period allowed Jews there to govern themselves in various areas of life, not…


(2,394 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Ohme, Heinz | Link, Christoph | Oppenheimer, Aharon
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox – III. Protestantism – IV. Judaism I. Catholic Excommunication must be defined as a privative term from communicatio and κοινωνíα/ koinōnía (cf. 1 Cor 10:16: sharing and participating in the body and blood of Jesus ¶ Christ; cf. 2 Cor 13:13: communion in the Holy Spirit). The word excommunication does not occur in the New Testament. The competence of the church to excommunicate is traced back to Matt 16:18f.…


(180 words)

Author(s): Oppenheimer, Aharon
[German Version] was a Jewish settlement located on a hill in lower Galilee. Flavius Josephus and Greek inscriptions give its name as Besara. In the Talmud it is generally called Beth-Shearim. At the end of the Second Temple period, it served as an administrative center for the estates in the Jezreel valley belonging to queen Berenice, great granddaughter of Herod and sister of Agrippa. The Patriarchate and leadership of the sages moved to Beth-Shearim in the days of rabbi Judah (about 180–220 ce). It is reasonable to suppose that Yehudah ha-Nasi r…