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(845 words)

Author(s): Osterhammel, Jürgen
Among sovereign states, extraterritoriality normally means the inapplicability of the judicial system of the host country to representatives of foreign states, in particular the complete or partial immunity of diplomatic personnel. In the case of China, this judicial privilege was extended to all citizens of the foreign treaty powers. Therefore, a large part of the foreigners who stayed on Chinese territory were beyond Chinese jurisdiction from 1844 to 1943. This form of extraterr…

Leased Territories

(1,907 words)

Author(s): Osterhammel, Jürgen
By international comparison, it was a peculiarity of China that the great powers secured territorial control mainly in the legal form of a limited-period lease. The unlimited and unconditional cessions of Hong Kong (in the Treaty of Nanjing 1842) and of Taiwan (in the Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895) remained exceptions. The main reasons for this restraint - at least by international law - were, on the one hand, the attempt by t…

Concessions and Settlements

(2,212 words)

Author(s): Osterhammel, Jürgen
1. Overview Territory controlled by foreign powers in China took various forms. A Treaty Port was not considered an urban colony until it possessed closed foreign residential areas in which the local population came into contact with foreign rulers. In contrast to the leased territories, they were small inner-city districts. I…

Treaty Ports

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Osterhammel, Jürgen
1. Origin and Concept Du…