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Evil Spirit of God רעה

(948 words)

Author(s): P. K. McCarter
I. Name There are references to ‘an evil spirit’ ( rûaḥ rāʿâ) sent by God in Judg. 9.23 and 1 Sam. 16.23. In the latter case, the spirit which afflicts Saul is also called rûaḥ ʾĕlōhîm rāʿâ, ‘an evil spirit of God’ or ‘evil divine spirit’ (1 Sam. 16.15, 1 Sam. 16; 1 Sam. 18.10), rûaḥ YHWH rāʿâ, ‘an evil spirit of Yahweh’ (1 Sam. 19.9), and, in its first occurrence, rûaḥ rāʿâ mēʾēt YHWH, ‘an evil spirit from Yahweh’ (1 Sam. 16.14). Rûaḥ, the Hebrew word commonly translated ‘spirit’, has primary meanings of both ‘breath’ and ‘wind’. The notion of ‘spirit’ …

Zion ציון

(1,130 words)

Author(s): P. K. McCarter
I. Name Zion, a name for Jerusalem of uncertain etymology, referred originally to the fortified acropolis of the pre-Israelite city. The ‘stronghold of Zion’ ( mĕṣūdat ṣiyyôn, 2 Sam. 5.7 = 1 Chron. 11.5; 1 Kgs. 8.1 = 2 Chron. 5.2) was located on top of the southeastern hill, overlooking the Valley of Kidron. David conquered it and renamed it for himself ( 2 Sam. 5.9), and the meanings of both names—‘Zion’ and ‘City of David’—were expanded as the city grew. Zion does not occur as a divine name in the Bible, but it does designate a sacred place, and the personification of Jerusalem as ṣiyyôn, …

Id אד

(616 words)

Author(s): P. K. McCarter
I. Name According to Gen. 2.6, the primordial world was watered by a ‘flood’ ( ʾēd) that arose from the earth prior to the advent of rainfall. It is probable that Hebr ʾēd was borrowed from Akk. id, ‘Id’, which occurs in cuneiform sources (usually written díd) as a name for the river as a deity, especially in connection with the river ordeal, a juridical process by which an accused person was tried by being thrown into the river ( CAD I/J. [1960] 8; AHW 364). Akkadian id was derived from the Sumerian name for the river god, who was believed to officiate over the ordeal. The comm…