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Plutarch (Plutarchus of Chaeronea)

(4,174 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
A. Life and work The Greek author P. (before AD 50 – after AD 120) spent most of his life in his native town of Chaeronea, but also travelled to Egypt and Italy, and taught in Rome. He had a number of influential friends, among them the consular Q. Sosius Senecio, to whom the Parallel Lives (Bíoi parállēloi; Latin: Vitae parallelae) are dedicated. For the last thirty years of his life Plutarch was a priest at Delphi, where he played a notable part in the revival of the shrine. Apart from P.’s philosophical writings (collected as 78 Ēthiká, Latin Moralia), we now possess 46 lives ( Vitae) of famous G…

Thucydides, Histories

(3,807 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
A. Life and work T. was the author of a contemporary history of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) between Athens (the Delian League) and Sparta (the Peloponnesian League). Its title is assumed simply to have been the Historíai or Xungraph (Latin Historiae). His mother belonged to the Athenian aristocratic family of the Philaïdae; his father’s family was Thracian, and throughout his life T. maintained connections with that region. He was elected stratēgós (‘general’) for the year 425/24 BC when he would have been at least thirty years old. Consequently he must have…

Plutarch (Plutarchos von Chaironeia)

(4,031 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
A. Leben und Werk Der griech. Autor Plutarch (vor 50 bis nach 120 n.Chr.) verbrachte den größten Teil seines Lebens in seiner Heimatstadt Chaironeia in Böotien, doch bereiste er auch Ägypten und Italien und lehrte in Rom. Unter seinen einflussreichen Freunden war der ehemalige röm. Konsul Quintus Sosius Senecio, dem er seine Bíoi paráll¯eloi (lat. Vitae parallelae, »Parallele Lebensbeschreibungen«) widmete. In seinen letzten 30 Lebensjahren leistete P. als Priester in Delphi einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Wiederaufleben des Apollonheiligtums. Neben P.s philosophischen Schrif…

Thukydides Historíai

(3,636 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
A. Leben und Werk Th. war der Verfasser eines zeitgenössischen Geschichtswerks über den Peloponnesischen Krieg (431–404 v.Chr.) zwischen Athen (dem Attischen Seebund) und Sparta (dem Peloponnesischen Bund), für das man den Titel Historíai oder Xyngraph¯e´ (lat. Historiae) annimmt. Seine Mutter gehörte der athenischen Aristokratenfamilie der Philaïdai an; der Vater stammte aus Thrakien, einem Land, zu dem Th. lebenslang Verbindungen pflegte. Er wurde als mindestens Dreißigjähriger für die Amtszeit von 425/24 zum athenischen strat¯egós (General) gewählt, womit seine G…

Neo-Latin Grammars—Niccolò Perotti’s Rudimenta grammatices

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ Though not a highly original work, Niccolò Perotti’s (1430–1480) Rudimenta grammatices (Elementary Grammar, 1468) is a milestone in Latin grammar and became the most widely diffused humanist Latin grammar of t…

Valla’s Elegantiae linguae Latinae

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ Lorenzo Valla’s (1407–1457) Elegantiae linguae Latinae (1441–1449),1 which may be described as a manual on ‘Advanced Idiomatic Latin’,2 is one of the most highly admired works on the Latin language from the Italian R…

From Mediaeval Latin to Neo-Latin

(10,534 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ I am grateful to Minna Skafte Jensen and Johann Ramminger for reading and suggesting improvements to this chapter. The present chapter will only incidentally describe actual differences between mediaeval Latin and Neo…

Bruni—De interpretatione recta

(1,270 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ Leonardo Bruni (1370–1444) was a pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras ( c. 1350–1415), the Byzantine scholar and diplomat who taught Greek at Florence in the last years of the fourteenth century.1 Chrysoloras is often credited with the h…

Translation as a Source for Neologisms

(1,530 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ A translator must first see to it that he has a profound knowledge of the language from which he translates. This he can only achieve by long, varied, and diligent reading of writers in all genres. F…

Neo-Latin Grammars—Guarino da Verona’s Regulae grammaticales

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ Guarino (1374–1460) composed his Latin textbook, the Regulae grammaticales ( Rules of Grammar), around 1418, but he may well have revised the work later, in the light of experiences collected during his long teaching career.1 It was …

Perotti’s Cornu copiae

(1,512 words)

Author(s): Pade, Marianne
¶ Niccolò Perotti (1430–1480) dedicated the last years of his life to the redaction of Cornu copiae seu linguae latinae commentarii (Horn of Plenty or Commentaries on the Latin Language, 1477–1480), which was to contain …