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(3,230 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
Pausch, Dennis [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The copying of literary texts, detached from a situation of acute demand and pursued on a commercial basis, presupposes societal and cultural advances, of which an increasingly complex division of labour and wide-scale literacy within a society are merely the most important. These complex preconditions explain the retreat of the commercial book-trade in times of economic and cultural decline. Despite the existence of a flourishing book-trade at some…

Florus, Publius Annius (Lucius Annaeus Florus)

(571 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. in the second half of the first cent. AD; d. in the second half of the second cent. AD; Roman historian. Works Roman history Manuscripts Two manuscript families existed in the Early Middle Ages, one that divides the work into two books, and the other that divides it into four. Both of these manuscript families, however, derive from the same Late Antique codex that is now lost. There was a marked increase in the number of manuscripts from the 11th/12th cents. onwards. Translations Florus’ summary of the history of Rome was translated into German and Italian as early as the mi…

Livius, Titus (Livy)

(1,383 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. 59 BC in Padua; d. AD 17 in Padua; Roman historian. Works Latin history, originally in 142 books. Papyri The only extant papyrus fragment contains only a few words, and is of no text-critical relevance. Manuscripts Even though Livy became a school author very quickly, summaries of his work began to appear within only a short space of time; because of their size, these often enjoyed greater popularity than the work itself. At the turn of the 5th cent. AD, Livy’s works were copied to parchment codices in conjunction with the group…

Velleius Paterculus

(619 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. 20/19 BC; d. after AD 30; Roman historian. Works Roman history. Manuscripts The text was transmitted on only one 8th cent. manuscript, discovered by Beatus Rhenanus in the Alsatian monastery of Murbach in 1515, but now lost. Translations With the exception of two French, and one English translation from the early 17th cent., the work was translated in greater numbers only in the 18th and early 19th cent. Awareness and reception of this author has significantly increased in recent years. Works Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Historia Romana/Ad M. Vinicium libri duo R…

Tacitus, (Publius?) Cornelius

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. ca. AD 55; d. ca. AD 120; Latin historian. Works Two annalistic historical accounts of the Roman Imperial Age ( Histories and Annals), and three minor works (Dialogue on Orators, biography of Agricola; description of Germania). Manuscripts Each of these works was transmitted to the Middle Ages in only a single copy. They were discovered comparatively lately; the codex containing the minor works was largely destroyed after having been copied in the mid-15th cent. The reception of Tacitus only intensified from the Renaissance onwards. Translations Translations of individual work…

Mela, Pomponius

(608 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
1st cent. AD; Roman geographer from Tingentera (Southern Spain). Works Geographical description of the Mediterranean world. Manuscripts The transmission is based on a codex copied in the 9th cent. in the vicinity of Lupus of Ferrières and Heiric of Auxerre. It was only in the 14th, and above all in the 15th cent., that numerous manuscripts were produced, although the most influential manuscript – emended and with a gloss provided by Petrarch – is now lost. Translations An early translation of the manuscript into Portuguese (ca. 1500) was followed in the second half of th…

Valerius Maximus

(673 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
1st half of the 1st cent. AD; author of a Latin collection of historical exempla. Works Collection of historical exempla. Manuscripts In the Middle Ages, Valerius Maximus was one of the most widely circulated authors, and thus also evident in a great number of manuscripts, all descending from a common source; of particular importance are two codices that date from the 9th cent. Translations As early as the 14th cent, Valerius Maximus was translated into Italian, German, French, and Spanish; some of these translations appeared in print in the 15th cent., othe…

Curtius Rufus, Quintus

(636 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
1st cent. AD; Roman Historian. Works Historical work on Alexander the Great in 10 books. Manuscripts A single Late Antique codex that is no longer extant survived into the Middle Ages. By way of another late 8th cent. manuscript, which is also lost, it laid the foundations for the manuscript tradition, which split into two families in the 9th cent. There are numerous manuscripts that date from the 12th cent. that have received little later attention from scholars. Translations Curtius Rufus was translated relatively early and quite frequently; by the year 1500 there was on…

Panegyrici Latini

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
Eleven panegyric orations on Roman emperors delivered in Gallia between AD 289 and 389. Some of the orators are known by name (e.g. Latinius Pacatus Drepanius, Claudius Mamertinus, Nazarius, Eumenius); as a model, a speech of thanks by Plinius [2] the Younger of AD 100 to Trajan that was soon published by Pliny himself was added at the front of the collection. Works Panegyric speeches, delivered by different orators, on different occasions, to the emperor of the day; only parts of the Panegyricus by Plinius [2], added to the collection to serve as an example, are also indepen…

Nepos, Cornelius

(917 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. ca. 100 BC; d. ca. 25 BC; Roman historian and biographer. Works Historical work ( Chronica, extant in fragments); collection of anecdotes ( Exempla, extant in fragments); biographies ( De viris illustribus, partially extant). Manuscripts Seemingly unknown from Late Antiquity; the most important medieval manuscript is now lost, but led to a rich manuscript tradition. Translations An early Italian translation (1550) was followed in the mid-17th cent., when Nepos became an author studied in schools, by numerous translations into various European langu…

Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Gaius (Plinius Minor, Pliny the Younger)

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. AD 61/62; d. AD 114; Latin epistolary and panegyric writer. Works Collection of letters; panegyric oration on the emperor Trajan (Traianus [1]). Manuscripts The collection of letters is witnessed early, and comparatively well, in two large manuscripts families (one of which comprises only books 1–9). Yet, early prints were initially based only on the incomplete manuscripts available in Italy. For that reason, the complete collection of letters appeared in print only very slowly. The panegyric oration is transmitted separately in the corpus of the Panegyrici Latini. Translations…

Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius

(963 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
b. ca. AD 70; d. ca. AD 140 (?); Latin biographer. Works Biographies of scholars and men of letters (partially extant); biographies of the Roman emperors from Caesar to Domitian. Manuscripts The imperial biographies are transmitted in more than 200 manuscripts, the oldest dating from the early 9th cent. Up to the Middle Ages, the extant part of his biographies of men of letters ( De viris illustribus) was transmitted in only a single codex. It was only in 1425 that a Carolingian copy (which also contained a collection of Tacitus’ minor works) was discovered in …

Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus)

(4,102 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
A. Life Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (b. c. AD 70) probably originated from the Roman province of Africa and came to Rome to study. He made his name as a writer there with several learned treatises and a collection of short biographies ( De viris illustribus, ‘On illustrious men’; = Vir. ill.). Hadrian, probably in AD 117, entrusted him with the management of his entire official correspondence, and thus with one of the highest offices in the Imperial administration ( ab epistulis). The Imperial biographies ( De vita Caesarum = Caes.) date from this period. S. seems to have lost his p…

Sueton (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus)

(3,908 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
A. Leben Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (geb. um 70 n.Chr.) stammte wahrscheinlich aus der röm. Provinz Africa und kam zum Studium nach Rom. Dort machte er sich in der Folgezeit mit mehreren gelehrten Abhandlungen und einer Sammlung von Kurzbiographien ( De viris illustribus, »Über berühmte Männer«; = Vir.ill.) einen Namen als Schriftsteller. Wohl im Jahr 117 wurde ihm von Hadrian die Betreuung der gesamten offiziellen Korrespondenz und damit eines der höchsten Ämter in der kaiserlichen Verwaltung anvertraut ( ab epistulis). In dieser Zeit entstanden die Kaiserbiographien ( De vita …

Livius [III 2], Titus

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
geb. 59 v.Chr. in Padua; gest. 17 n.Chr. ebd.; röm. Historiker. Werke Lat. Geschichtswerk in ursprünglich 142 Büchern. Papyri Das einzige Papyrusfragment umfasst nur wenige Wörter und ist textkritisch unerheblich. Handschriften Obwohl Livius früh zum Schulautor wurde, entstanden angesichts des großen Umfangs bald Zusammen- fassungen, die sich häufig größerer Beliebtheit erfreuten als das Werk selbst. An der Wende vom 4. zum 5. Jh. n.Chr. wurde Livius im Umfeld des Kreises um → Symmachus [4] auf Pergamentcodices umgeschrieben;…

Nepos [2], Cornelius

(878 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
geb. ca. 100 v.Chr.; gest. um 25 v.Chr.; lat. Historiker und Biograph. Werke Geschichtswerk ( Chronica, fragmentarisch erh.); Exempelsammlung ( Exempla, fragmentarisch erh.); Biographien ( De viris illustribus, teilweise erh.). Handschriften Ab der Spätantike offenbar unbekannt; die wichtigste mittelalterliche Hs. ist heute verloren, führte aber im 15. Jh. zu einer reichen Hss.-Tradition. Übersetzungen Auf eine frühe ital. Übersetzung (1550) folgten Mitte des 17. Jhs., als Nepos zum Schulautor avancierte, zahlreiche Übertragungen in verschiedene e…

Velleius [4] Paterculus

(553 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
geb. 20/19 v.Chr.;gest. nach 30 n.Chr.;lat. Historiker. Werke Römische Geschichte. Handschriften Der Text wurde nur auf einer erst 1515 von Beatus Rhenanus im elsäss. Kloster Murbach entdeckten Hs. aus dem 8. Jh. überliefert, die heute aber verloren ist. Übersetzungen Nach zwei franz. und einer engl. Übertragung aus dem frühen 17. Jh. entstanden erst im 18. und in der 1. H. des 19. Jhs. vermehrt Übersetzungen dieses v.a. in den letzten Jahren verstärkt wahrgenommenen Autors. Werke Werktitel lat. Werktitel dt. Datierung Kurzbeschreibung 1 Historia Romana/Ad M. Vinicium libri duo Röm…

Curtius [II 8] Rufus, Quintus

(561 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
1. Jh. n.Chr.; lat. Historiker. Werke Geschichtswerk über Alexander den Großen in 10 B. Handschriften Nur ein nicht erhaltener spätant. Codex gelangte ins MA, der über eine ebenfalls verlorene Kopie des späten 8. Jhs. die sich im 9. Jh. in zwei Hss.-Familien teilende Überlieferung begründete. Die ab dem 12. Jh. zahlreich entstandenen Hss. sind wenig erforscht. Übersetzungen Curtius Rufus wurde relativ früh und häufig übersetzt; bis zum Jahr 1500 lagen je eine ital., span. und franz. Übertragung vor. Im 16. und 17. Jh. folgten weitere Übersetzungen, darunter ins Engl. (e…

Plinius [2] Caecilius Secundus, Caius (Plinius der Jüngere)

(998 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
geb. 61/62 n.Chr.; gest. ca. 114 n.Chr.; lat. Briefautor und Panegyriker. Werke Briefsammlung; panegyrische Rede auf Kaiser Trajan (Traianus [1]). Handschriften Die Briefsammlung ist in zwei großen Hss.-Familien (von denen eine nur die Bücher 1–9 umfasst) schon früh und relativ gut bezeugt, doch basierten die frühen Drucke zunächst auf den in Italien verfügbaren unvollständigen Hss., so dass die gesamte Briefsammlung erst nach und nach gedruckt erschien. Die panegyrische Rede ist unabhängig davon im Corpus der → Panegyrici Latini überliefert. Übersetzungen Eine dt. Übersetz…

Tacitus [1], (Publius?) Cornelius

(1,403 words)

Author(s): Pausch, Dennis
geb. um 55 n.Chr.;est. um 120 n.Chr.;lat. Historiker. Werke Zwei annalistisch angelegte Geschichtsdarstellungen der röm. Kaiserzeit (Historien und Annalen) und drei kleinere Schriften (Dialog über die Redekunst; Biographie des Agricola; Beschreibung Germaniens). Handschriften Die Schriften gelangten nur auf jeweils einem Exemplar ins MA und wurden zum Teil erst relativ spät entdeckt; der Codex mit den kleinen Schriften wurde nach seiner Abschrift (Mitte des 15. Jhs.) größtenteils zerstört. Erst ab der Renaissance wurde Tacitus intensiver rezipiert. Übersetzungen Überset…
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