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Ibn Mayyāda

(727 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū S̲h̲arāḥīl (or S̲h̲uraḥbīl ) al-Rammāḥ b. Abrad (Yazīd in Ibn Ḳutayba) b. T̲h̲awbān al-Murrī , of the Banū Murra b. ʿAwf, Bedouin poet who lived in the Ḥid̲j̲āz and in Nad̲j̲d from the reign of His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik (105-25/724-43) to the period of the early ʿAbbāsids; he died during the caliphate of al-Manṣūr, about 136/754 according to al-Bag̲h̲dādī, in 149/766 according to Yāḳūt. His mother Mayyāda (= one who swings) was a slave, said to have been of Berber or Slav origin, who…

ʿAnḳāʾ

(253 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(often followed by mug̲h̲rib as an epithet or in iḍāfa ) a fabulous bird approximating to the phoenix, which was also located by the Greeks in the deserts of Arabia. The belief in this creature is of long-standing among the Arabs, who connect it with the Aṣḥāb al-Rass [ q.v.], but it received its confirmation in a ḥadīt̲h̲ reported by Ibn ʿAbbās (al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , iv, 19 ff.), which states that, created by God, the ʿanḳāʾ , in the beginning endowed with all perfections, had become a plague; one of the prophets of the "Interval" ( fatra ), either Ḵh̲ālid b. Sinān o…

Abū Dahbal al-Ḏj̲umaḥī

(246 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Wahb b. Zamʿa , Ḳurays̲h̲ite poet of Mecca, who started to compose poetry before 40/660 and died after 96/715. He is included among the erotic poets of the Ḥid̲j̲āz by his poems devoted to three women: ʿAmra, of a noble Meccan family, a Syrian woman who led him into a breach with his family, and especially ʿAtīka, daughter of Muʿāwiya, whom he first saw during a pilgrimage. His verses, soon becoming famous, attracted the attention of the princess, whom he followed to Damascus…

Ḏj̲arīda

(16,453 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Pellat, Ch. | Ed. | P. M. Holt | K. Hitti, Philip | Et al.
, literally “leaf”, which has become the usual term in modern Arabic for a newspaper, its adoption being attributed to Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ [ q.v.]. Its synonym ṣaḥīfa is less used in the sing., but the plural ṣuḥuf is more common than d̲j̲arāʾid . Some interest in the European press was shown by the Ottomans as early as the 18th century and, it would seem, excerpts from European newspapers were translated for the information of the dīwān (Prussian despatch from Constantinople, of 1780, cited by J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches , vi, Gotha 1859, …

K̲h̲ālid b. Ṣafwān b. ʿabd allāh b. ʿamr b. al-Ahtam

(449 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(whence the name ibn al-ahtam sometimes given to him) al-tamīmī al-minḳarī , abū ṣafwān , of Baṣra (d. 135/752), the companion of ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, His̲h̲ām b. ʿAbd al-Malik, K̲h̲ālid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī and probably also of Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ, was a transmitter of historical traditions, poetry and memorable orations, but was especially famed for his eloquence, since he fulfilled a rôle parallel to that of the poets, in that he was able to improvise a homily or description …

ʿAbd Allāh b. Hilāl

(244 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥimyarī al-Kūfī , a magician of Kūfa, contemporary of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, with whom he was in relations after the building of the palace in Wāsiṭ (Yāḳūt, iv, 885; cf. also an adventure with a concubine of the caliph, Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Lisān al-Mīzān , iii, 372-3). Ag̲h̲ānī 1, i, 167 quotes verses by ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa that bear witness to a connection between the poet and the magician. He abtained his powers from a magic ring given to him by Satan to thank him for having defended him from children who were insulting him. He was also though…

Ibn al-Muʿad̲h̲d̲h̲al

(973 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd al-Ṣamad b. al-Muʿad̲h̲d̲h̲al b. G̲h̲aylān b. al-Ḥakam al-ʿAbdī , an Arab satirical poet of Baṣra (d. 240/854-5) who belonged to a family of the ʿAbd al-Ḳays, many members of which wrote poetry. His grandfather G̲h̲aylān is mentioned in the sources as a poet, and his father al-Muʿad̲h̲d̲h̲al exchanged epigrams with Abān al-Lāḥiḳī [ q.v.] in particular, one of which was considered sufficiently original to be included in the Dīwān of Abū Nuwās (1277 ed.; 79; 1332 ed., 151; the Cairo ed. 1953 omits it; metre ramal , rhyme ānā ). Ibn al-Nadīm ( Fihrist, Cairo, 234) attribute…

al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Kalada

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAmr b. ʿIlād̲j̲ al-T̲h̲aḳafī (d. 13/634-5), traditionally considered as the oldest known Arab physician. It is nevertheless difficult to pin down his personality. He came originally from al-Ṭāʾif, where he was probably born a few years after the middle of the 6th century A.D., and is said to have been a lute-player (trained in Persia?) before studying medicine at Gondēs̲h̲āpūr [ q.v.] and, adds Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī ( Ṭabaḳāt al-umam , ed. Cheikho, Beirut 1912, 47, tr. Blachère, Paris 1935, 99) with small probability, in the Yemen. He became …

al-Munak̲h̲k̲h̲al al-Yas̲h̲kurī

(705 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name given to a pre-Islamic poet whose personality is hard to define, in so far as his historical existence is ¶ not actually in doubt. His father is called al-Ḥārit̲h̲, Masʿūd, ʿUbayd and even ʿAmr, and he does not appear in the genealogical table (no. 141) of Ibn al-Kalbī’s D̲j̲amhara concerning the Yas̲h̲kur; two men with the name of al-Munak̲h̲k̲h̲al are cited in this work (see Register , ii, 428), but neither of them seems to correspond to the poet treated in this present article. Furthermore, one wonders whether the carefulness t…

Muʿāwiya b. Ḥudayd̲j̲

(757 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(K̲h̲adīd̲j̲ in the D̲j̲amhara of Ibn al-Kalbī, Tab. 240) b. D̲j̲afna al-Sakūnī al-Tud̲j̲ībī , Abū Nuʿaym or Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, Companion of the Prophet who took part in the conquest of Egypt and remained in the country with the Muslim occupying forces. He was an ʿUt̲h̲mānī, much attached to the memory of ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān and hostile to ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib; also, when Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr [ q.v.], who had been involved in the murder of ʿUt̲h̲mān, arrived at Fusṭāṭ in mid-Ramaḍān 37/24 February 658, in order to govern Egypt in the name of ʿAlī, Ibn Ḥudayd̲j̲ sho…

ʿĀmir b. ʿAbd al-Ḳays (later ʿAbd Allah al-ʿAnbarī

(225 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, tābiʿī and ascetic of Baṣra. His way of life attracted the attention of the agent of ʿUt̲h̲mān, Ḥumrān b. Abān, who denounced him to the Caliph; ʿĀmir was interrogated by ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir and exiled to Damascus where he died, probably during the caliphate of Muʿāwiya. His way of life seems to have consisted of various kinds of abstinence (he despised wealth and women) and pious works, and it is possible that the measures taken against him were dictated by the desire to prevent the advocacy of celibacy at a time when Islam needed fighting men; Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif , 19…

Ibn Lisān al-Ḥummara

(328 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, usual by-name of a Bedouin of the 1st/7th century, who became proverbial for his knowledge of the genealogies of the Arabs. His name was Abū Kilāb ʿUbayd Allāh b. al-Ḥuṣayn (ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥiṣn) or Warḳāʾ b. al-As̲h̲ʿar, and he belonged to the Banū Taym al-Lāt b. T̲h̲aʿlaba. Ḥummara means a red-headed sparrow, the ammomanes or “Isabelline lark” ( Ammomanes deserti), of the family of the alaudidae , but the origin of his father’s by-name (and of his own, for he is sometimes called simply Lisān al-Ḥummara) is unknown. Practically nothing is …

K̲h̲alaf b. Ḥayyān al-Aḥmar, Abū Muḥriz

(531 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( ca, 115-80/ ca. 733-96), famous rāwiya of Baṣra. His parents came originally from Farg̲h̲āna and had been brought as captives to ʿIrāḳ, and then freed by Bilāl b. Abī Burda [see al-As̲h̲ʿarī ], whose mawlā K̲h̲alaf remained. He had a prodigious memory, and knew perfectly Bedouin life, their language, traditions and legends, and he gathered together all the poetic works set before him in order to transmit them to his successors. He is said to have been the pupil of ʿĪsā b. ʿUmar and Abū ʿAmr b. al-ʿAlāʾ [ q.vv.], but did not pride himself on his knowledge of philology and was conten…

Malḥūn

(12,048 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( məlḥūn ) designates the state of the language which served for the expression of certain forms of dialectal poetry in the Mag̲h̲rib, as well as this poetry itself. Although the verse composed may be generally intended to be intoned and chanted by amateurs or professionals with a momentary musical accompaniment, this term does not come from laḥn “melody”, as Muḥammad al-Fāsī ¶ would have it ( Adab s̲h̲aʿbī , 43-4), but from laḥana (cf. D̲j̲irārī. Ḳaṣīda , 55-7) understood in the sense of “to stray from the linguistic norm” i.e. from literary Arabic [see laḥn al-ʿāmma …

Ibrāhīm b. al-Sindī

(573 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. S̲h̲āhak , mawlā of the ʿAbbāsids, who seems to have defended their cause with talent and perseverence, but of whose life very few precise details are known. His father, al-Sindi b. S̲h̲āhak, whose origins are obscure, was probably a former slave from Sind who had risen to hold important offices; he is said to have been ḳāḍī (Ibn Ḳutayba, ʿUyūn , i, 70) and governor ( wālī ) in Syria (al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Ḥayawān , v, 393), but his main role seems to have been that of a police officer giving especial allegiance to Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd, who entrusted him…

(al-)Ḥusayn b. al-Ḍaḥḥāk

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Bāhilī , Abū ʿAlī , with the nicknames As̲h̲ḳar and, more particularly, al-K̲h̲alīʿ “the Debauched”, a Baṣra poet who spent almost the whole of his life in the entourage of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs and who can be regarded as the perfect type of court poet, at least at a court dominated by the taste for pleasure, indeed for debauchery. His family, which originated in K̲h̲urāsān, had for a long time been connected with the ¶ mawālī of the Bāhila when Ḥusayn was born, probably in the 150’s, since he could remember an incident that occurred in 160/775. With his childhood friend Abū Nuwās [ q.v.] he stu…

Ibn al-Iflīlī

(486 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(or simply al-Iflīlī ), Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Zakariyyāʾ al-Zuhrī , philologian, teacher and man of ¶ letters, born in Cordova in 352/963 of a family from al-Iflīl, in Syria(?). After receiving a classical education, he acquired the reputation of a great connoisseur of Arabic poetry, grammar and g̲h̲arīb [ q.v.]; though he was ignorant, it is said, of prosody, he prided himself on his poetry, but al-Ḥid̲j̲ārī ( apud Ibn Saʿīd, Mug̲h̲rib , 73) criticizes his verse and prose compositions as too lifeless, and will not allow more than two verses of his to be acceptable. To judge by …

Ibn Muṭayr

(354 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, al-Ḥusayn b. Muṭayr b. Mukammil al-Asadī , Arabic poet of the 2nd/8th century. A mawlā of the Banū Asad (following the manumission or the mukātaba [ q.v.] of his grandfather Mukammil), he was a native of al-T̲h̲aʿlabiyya [ q.v.]; from there he seems to have travelled around in the Arabian peninsula and to have gone in particular to Medina, where he appears on one occasion with the governor of the town; he may even have had the opportunity of reciting poems before al-Walīd b. Yazīd; but his fortune dates from his stay in the Yemen, where he entered the entourage of Maʿn b. Zāʾida [ q.v.], governor …

Manāḳib

(10,054 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), plural substantive (sing manḳaba ) featuring in the titles of a quite considerable number of biographical works of a laudatory nature, which have eventually become a part of hagiographical literature in Arabic, in Persian and in Turkish. To define this term, the lexicographers make it a synonym of ak̲h̲lāḳ , taken in the sense of “natural dispositions (good or bad), innate qualities, character”, and associate it with naḳība , explained by nafs “soul”, k̲h̲alīḳa or ṭabiʿa , likewise signifying “trait of character, disposition”, but also with nafād̲h̲ al-raʾy

Ibn Sallām al-Ḏj̲umaḥī

(807 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥ. b. Sallām , traditionist and philologist of the Baṣra school. He was a mawlā of Ḳudāma b. Maẓʿūn al-D̲j̲umaḥī and was born at Baṣra in 139/756. It was in his native town that he began the traditional studies—religious sciences and adab in general— particularly with his father, who was very well versed in poetry and lexicography. He was in contact, at Baṣra and also at Bag̲h̲dād, with a considerable number of the scholars of the period, among them the great names of Arabic literature, al-Aṣmaʿī Ab…
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