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(578 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ῥοιμητάλκης/ Rhoimētálkēs). Kings of Thrace (cf. stemma 22 in PIR2 P, vol. 6, p. 233; Thraci, Thracia). [German version] [1] R. I Roman vassal prince from 22 BC In 31 BC, he changed sides from Mark Antony (Antonius [II I 9]) to Octavian (Octavianus [1]) (Plut. Mor. 207a; Plut. Romulus 17,3). Around 22 BC, he succeeded his brother-in-law Cotys [I 6] as Roman vassal prince, taking guardianship of his son Rhascuporis [2]; in 19/8 BC, he assisted M. Lollius [II 1] against the Bessi (Cass. Dio 54,20,3), who succeeded in drivin…


(433 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Name variations: Ῥασκύπορις/ Rhaskýporis, Ῥα(ι,η)σκούπορις/ Rha(i,ē)skoúporis, Ῥασκούπολις/ Rhaskoúpolis; Latin Rhascypolis, Rhascupolis, R(h)ascipolis, R(h)escuporis, Raescuporis). Kings of the Sapaei dynasty in Thrace (cf. stemma 8 in PIR2 R, vol. 7.1, p. 59). [German version] [1] R. I. Thracian king, fought for Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC He and his brother Rhascus succeeded their father Cotys [I 7] as rulers. In 48 BC R. fought at Pharsalus for Pompey [I 3] (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,3); however he was pardoned by Caesar due to the commendable…


(39 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Prince of the rebellious Bessi, who was assassinated in 57 BC by the Macedonian governor L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus at the command of king Cotys [I 5] of Thrace (Cic. Pis. 84). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)


(150 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ἑβρύζελμις; Hebrýzelmis). [German version] [1] King of the Odrysen, 4th cent. BC On coins ΕΒΡΥΤΕΛΜΙΟΣ or ΕΒΡΥ. King of the Odrysians in the 80s of the 4th cent. BC (IG II/III2 31; Syll.3 1,138; Tod 117) [1. 18]; perhaps a son of Seuthes II [4]. Some scholars identify H. with Ἀβροζέλμης ( Abrozélmēs), the interpreter of Seuthes II, who negotiated with Xenophon (An. 7,6,43) [5]. H. minted several types of bronze coins [2. 106-112]. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 C. L. Lawton, Attic Document Reliefs, 1995 2 U. Peter, Die Münzen der thrakischen Dynasten, 1997 3 A. Höck, Der Odr…


(147 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Διήγυλις; Diḗgylis, Val. Max. 9,2 ext. 4: Diogyris). King of the Thracian tribe of the Caeni and brother-in-law of the Bithynian king  Prusias II, whom he supported in the war against  Attalus [5] II of Pergamum (App. Mith. 6). He attacked Attalus' possessions on the Thracian Chersonesus and destroyed Lysimachea (Diod. Sic. 33,14,2-5) but was defeated by Attalus in 145-141 BC (Str. 13,4,2; Pomp. Trog. prol. 36; OGIS 330, 339 [1; 2]). Diodorus (33,14-15; 34,12) and Valerius Maximus (9,2 ext. 4) emphasize the cruelty of his reign and that of his son Zibelmius. Peter, Ulrik…


(109 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀβρούπολις; Abroupolis). Dynast of the Thracian Sapaioi east of the Nestus and north of Abdera; crossed the Macedonian border as far as Amphipolis in 179 BC, captured mines in Pangaeum, was repelled by  Perseus and driven from his country. The Roman request, in 172, for the restoration of its socius et amicus served as a pretence for the third Macedonian War (Syll.3 643; Pol. 22,18,2-3; Diod. Sic. 29,33; Liv. 42,13,5; 40,5; 41,10-11; App. Mac. 11; Paus. 7,10,6). Thracian name form Ἀβλουπορις ( Ablouporis) known from two inscriptions from 80 BC (Sherk, no. 20; …


(436 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σεύθης/ Seúthēs). [German version] [1] S. I. Odrysian king, son of Sparadocus, who in 424 BC inherited the kingdom from his uncle Sitalces [1] (Thuc. 2,101,5; 4,101,5) after the latter had ended the fight against Perdiccas [2] in 429 through S.' intervention. In the following, S. was married to Perdiccas' sister Stratonice [1] (Thuc. 2,101,6). Beginning in 410 under Maesades und Teres, partial principalities separated themselves from the Odrysian kingdom which had been quite powerful at S.' accession (Thuc. 2,97,3). S. was succeeded in c. 410/405 BC by Medocus [1. 119-121; 3. …


(50 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βαρσάβας; Barsábas). Sapaean dynast who was part of  Andriscus' campaign to Macedonia in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 32,15,7). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Ch. M. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan von der hell. Zeit bis zur Gründung Konstantinopels, ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185.


(83 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Thracian dynast at the end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC. Known only through his bronze and silver minting with the markings ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ and ΒΕΡΓ (also interpreted as the name of a city or an official). Parallels with Thasian coin designs suggest a location in the south-west of Thrace by the lower course of the Nestus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography HN 283 J. Jurukova, M. Domaradski, Nov centǎr na trakijskata kultura - s. Vetren, Pazardžiško, in: Numizmatika 3, 1990, 3-19.


(126 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκίλουρος/ Skílouros). King in the second half of the 2nd century BC of the Scythian-Taurian state in Crimea with capital Neapolis (modern Simferopol). His coins suggest a temporary protectorate over Olbia ([2]; contra [1. 146-148]). When S. devastated the chṓra of Chersonesus [2], its inhabitants called on Mithridates [6]. One of S.' many sons, Palacus, fought Mithridates' general Diophantus [2] without success (Str. 7,4,3 and 7; 7,3,17; Syll.3 709 = IOSPE 2, 352; SEG 39, 692). His daughter Senamotis was married to a Bosporan Greek ([3]; SEG 37, 674). Scythae II. Pet…


(92 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Βηρισάδης; Bērisádēs). Thracian dynast who, together with Amadocus, forced Cersobleptes to divide up the Odrysian kingdom in 359-357 BC after the death of  Cotys I. He received the western part bordering Macedonia. His brother-in-law, the Athenian mercenary commander  Athenodorus, assisted him (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 10; 170; 173-174; Str. 7, fr. 47; StV 303). In 358/7 Philip II occupied Crenides, which lay in B.'s territory. B.'s sons succeeded him in power in 357/6. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography E. Badian, Philip II and Thrace, in: Pulpudeva…


(108 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Gold coins with the legend ΚΟΣΩΝ, known since the Renaissance, found only in Transylvania (Romania); they elicit varying interpretations to the present day. Presumably they are to be attributed to a Geto-Dacian king Koson/Cotiso in the second half of the 1st cent. BC (cf. Suet. Aug. 63,2; Flor. Epit. 2,28). Some doubt the authenticity of the coins [2]. PIR2 C 1536; 1544. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 O. Iliescu, Sur les monnaies d'or à la légende ΚΟΣΩΝ, in: Quaderni Ticinesi 19, 1990, 185-214 2 C. Preda, Ein neuer Vorschlag zur Chronologie der K.-Münzen, in: U. Pet…

Cavarus, Cauarus

(157 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Καύαρος; Kaúaros). Last king of the Celtic realm in East Thrace with capital in  Tyle in the late 3rd cent. BC (Pol. 4,46,4). Numerous finds of bronze coins, of which several nominals and types were issued, caused a renewed discussion of the location and nature of his kingdom in recent research [1. 7-15; 2]. C.'s silver coins were minted in  Cabyle [3]. Polybius praised C.'s achievements: he safeguarded merchant shipping in the Black Sea, supported Byzantium in 220 BC in a war against Rhodes and effected a peace (Pol. 4,52,1-2; 8,22). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1…


(114 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκύλης/ Ský l ēs). Scythian King around the mid 5th cent. BC, son of a Greek woman from Istros and of Ariapeithes whose realm he inherited. However, due to his Greek way of life, S. was forced to flee to Sitalces [1] who turned him over to S.' half-brother Octamasades, who had S. put to death (Hdt. 4,78-80). The name of S. has been transmitted on a gold ring. Several bronze emissions from Niconia are attributed to S. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography V. A. Anochin, Die Münzen der skythischen Könige, in: Hamburger Beitrage zur Archäologie 18, 1991, 141-150 (esp. 142-144)  F.…


(71 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολεμοκρατεία/ Polemokrateía, also Πολεμοκρατία/ Polemokratía). Thracian queen, wife of Sadalas II and mother of Cotys [I 6] (IGR I 775); in 43 BC, she handed over the family fortune to M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in order to rescue Cotys and have his kingdom restored to him (App. B Civ. 4,75,319-320). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network, in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 186-211, esp. 192.


(47 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡγησιπύλη; Hēgēsipýlē). Daughter of King Olorus of Thrace. Married  Miltiades [2] in c. 515-513 BC and bore him a child  Cimon (Hdt. 6,39,2; Plut. Cimon 4,1). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography C. Feretto, Milziade ed Egesipile. Un matrimonio d'interesse, in: Serta Historica Antiqua [1], 1986, 77-83.


(106 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μόστις/ Móstis). King, who probably ruled the Caeni in southeastern Thrace in the last quarter of the 2nd/beginning of the 1st cent. BC (earlier dating refuted). He is known only through tetradrachmai attesting to a 38 year reign, bronze coins and two inscriptions (BE 1972, 284; Moretti 2, 116; SEG XXXIV 696 and XXXVII 602; [3. 190]). He may have been a confederate of Mithradates [6] VI. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F. de Callataÿ, L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, 258-259 2 J. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i…


(217 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σιτάλκης/ Sitálkēs). [German version] [1] King of Thrace, second half of the 5th cent. BC King of Thrace in the second half of the 5th cent. BC, son of Teres, the founder of the Odrysae kingdom, brother of Sparadocus. The Thracian-Scythian conflict with his nephew Octamasades was resolved by S. handing over Scyles. In 431 BC his brother-in-law Nymphodorus from Abdera mediated a treaty between S. and Athens and one between Perdiccas [2] and Athens (Thuc. 2,29; cf. Aristoph. Ach. 141-153; Diod. Sic. 12,50,3; St…


(276 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Cersebleptes). Thracian king known to ancient authors as Κερσοβλέπτης ( Kersobléptēs, in inscriptions (e.g. Syll.3 195 = FdD III 1, 392) and on a vessel of the hoard find of Rogozen [1. 197 no. 15] Κερσεβλέπτης ( Kersebléptēs). His small bronze coins bear the legend ΚΕΡ ( KER). C. followed his father  Cotys [I 1] I, to power in 360 BC (Dem. Or. 23,163). He attempted to maintain Odrysian power on the  Chersonesus and, therefore, engaged in a permanent conflict with Athens that was marked by varying success. C. received active …


(91 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Scythian kings of Scythia Minor (Dobrudža) in the late 3rd/2nd cents. who became known for the coins they apparently issued in Tomis, Callatis, Dionysopolis and Odessus. C. minted several types and nominals of bronze coins while being referred to as the king of the Scythians in a decree from Odessus (CIG 2, 2056; IGBulg I2, 41; Moretti, 124). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Regling, Charaspes, in: Corolla Numismatica, 1906, 259-265 J. Youroukova, Nouvelles données sur la chronologie des rois scythes en Dobrudža, in: Thracia 4, 1977, 105-121.
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