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Schupp, Johann Balthasar

(364 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (alias: Ambrosius Mellilambius, Antenor, Ehrnhold, Philander; Mar, 1610, Giessen – Oct 26, 1661, Hamburg), Lutheran theologian, writer, and educator. After attending school in Giessen, he began university studies at Marburg in 1625, spent three years traveling through northeastern Europe, and received his M.A. at Rostock in 1631. Returning to Marburg, he attended lectures on rhetoric; in 1634 he continued his studies at Leiden and Amsterdam. In 1635 he was appointed professor of h…

Augsburg Confession

(1,627 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] I. Origin – II. Content – III. Further history The Augsburg Confession of 1530 is the most important confessional document (Articles of Faith) of Protestantism. I. Origin In early 1530 conditions seemed unexpectedly favorable for a settlement of the religious quarrels that had broken out in the empire. After peace agreements with Pope Clement V (1523–34) and Francis I of France (1515–47) Emperor Charles V (1519–56) could for…

Augsburg Confession, Apology of the

(406 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] Following delivery of the Augsburg Confession by the Protestant estates of the empire on Jun 25, 1530 and the start of work by Roman Catholic theologians on the Confutatio , by mid-July Electoral Saxony had already taken the decision to defend the Protestant Confession with a further document, should this prove necessary. On Aug 3, 1530, the Confutatio was read out but not handed out to the Protestants. So for their work on the Apology, which began immediately, Melanchthon and his …

Meyfart, Johann Matthäus

(240 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (Nov 9, 1590, Jena – Jan 26, 1642, Erfurt), theologian and author of devotional works. He was a representative of the pietistic Frömmigkeitsbewegung, focused on the meaning of Lutheran eschatology for the individual, and a hymnwriter (“Jerusalem, du hochgebaute Stadt,” EG 150; ET: “Jerusalem, thou city fair and high,” Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary, 541). He began his studies at Jena in 1608 (1624 Dr.theol.) and went to Wittenberg in 1614. Appointed to the faculty of the Gymnasium Casimirianum in Coburg in 1614, he became its direct…

Territorial Church History

(1,691 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] I. Name and Definition Territorial church history (TCH; also: church history of the Länder; Regional church) is a discipline of historical theology (Church history). It is concerned with church territories (Church order) as presently consitituted, and brings out their specific traditions and qualities. Thus the degrees of interdependence between TCH, general church history, regional history, and general history vary greatly. ¶ Within historical theology, TCH has important functions. It covers a wide spectrum of local sources and relationshi…

Confutation of the Augsburg Confession

(323 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] The Confutation ( Confutatio) was a Catholic response to the Augsburg Confession ( CA), which had been presented to the emperor. Late in June 1530, some 20 Catholic theologians (including J. Eck, J. Cochlaeus, and J. Fabri) were instructed to compose a refutation of the CA. The form it should take was disputed: the imperial court wanted a confessional presentation of Catholic teaching, while the papal legate wanted a definitive rejection of the teaching of the CA. There are three dis¶ tinct texts of the Confutation: (1) the Responsio theologorum (CR 27, 85–97),…

Hamelmann, Hermann

(208 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (1526, Osnabrück – Jun 26, 1595, Oldenburg), Lutheran theologian. He attended school in Osnabrück, Münster and Dortmund and studied in Cologne and Mainz (1549/1550). He served as a chaplain in Münster, became a priest (1550) and pastor in Kamen (1552). Initially a Reform Catholic opponent of the Reformation, he became a Lutheran in 1553 and was removed from office. Hamelmann after-¶ wards worked as a preacher in Bielefeld (Neustadt) in 1554, but was removed from office in 1555. He then became a preacher in Lemgo (Marien). He studied in Rost…

Geiler von Kaysersberg, Johannes

(355 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1445, Schaffhausen – Mar 10, 1510, Strassburg). The most important popular preacher in German-speaking Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. He attended school in Kaysersberg, Alsace. In 1460 he went on to study at Freiburg i.Br., receiving his M.A. in 1463 and becoming dean of the faculty of arts. There he formed a friendship with J. Wimpfeling. He was ordained priest in 1470. In 1471 he moved to Basel, where he was associated with the cathedral and began his study of th…

Eberlin von Günzburg, Johann

(298 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (c. 1465, Kleinkötz near Günzburg – Oct 1533, Leutershausen [Ansbach]). He married Martha of Aurach in 1524. An adherent of Franciscan Observantism in Heilbronn, Tübingen (until 1519), Basel (contact with K. Pellikan, Beatus Rhenanus, Zwingli) and Ulm (1521), he was also a humanist and the author of the pamphlet cycle Die 15 Bundesgenossen (Basel 1521; pamphlets). In 1522, he studied in Wittenberg (renunciation of his earlier writings, siding with Luther, “member of household” in the “Black Monastery”). He was a pamphleteer in the ¶ service of the moderate Reform…

Quiet in the Land, The

(395 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] Quiet in the Land, The, collective term for an extraordinary variety of religious groups and individual ¶ figures in Central Europe, especially at the transition from 18th-century Pietism to the revival movements of the 19th century. The term, which derives from Luther’s translation of Ps 35:20 (“. . . they conceive deceitful words against those who are quiet in the land”), has mystical connotations (German mysticism [III, 3.b]; Church song). All the quiet of the land shared a desire to intensify …

Rothmann, Bernhard

(331 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (Bernd Rottmann; 1495?, Stadtlohn – 1535, Münster?), Roman Catholic priest (1529), champion of the Reformation in Münster (1532), leading theologian of the Anabaptist kingdom of Münster (1534/1535). After schooling in Deventer, Münster, and Alkmar, Rothmann served initially as a teacher in Warendorf (receiving his M.A. in Mainz in 1524), then became chaplain of Sankt Mauritz in Münster (1529). He began his work as a Reformer in Münster, with a journey to Wittenberg, where he faile…

Sprögel, Johann Heinrich

(211 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1644, Quedlinburg – Feb 25, 1722, Stolp, Pomerania [Słupsk]), Lutheran theologian, a leader of the Pietist movement in Quedlinburg, and father-in-law of G. Arnold. After studying in Leipzig, he taught at the abbey Gymnasium in Quedlinburg and was appointed a deacon of the abbey in 1681. After bitter conflicts with the abbess Anna Dorothea, duchess of Saxony-Weimar (governed 1684–1704), his ties with Pietism (journey to Leipzig in 1689; close contacts with A.H. Francke, at…

Confessionis Augustanae Apologia

(400 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (Apology of the Augsburg Confession). Following delivery of the Augsburg Confession by the Protestant estates of the empire on Jun 25, 1530 and the start of work by Roman Catholic theologians on the Confutation , by mid-July Electoral Saxony had already taken the decision to defend the Protestant Confession with a further document, should this prove necessary. On Aug 3, 1530, the Confutatio was read out but not handed out to the Protestants. So for their work on the Apology, which began immediately, Melanchthon and his colleagues were dependent on the…

Gebhard Truchsess of Waldburg

(386 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1547, Schloss Heiligenberg near Lake Constance – May 31, 1601, Strassburg), archbishop and elector of Cologne. He studied at Dillingen, Ingolstadt, Louvain, Perugia, and Bourges. In 1560 he became a canon of the cathe-¶ dral in Augsburg, in 1561 in Cologne and in 1567 in Strassburg, where he became dean of the cathedral in 1574. As Gebhard II, he officiated as archbishop and elector of Cologne from 1577 to 1583. The rival candidate, Ernest of Bavaria from the house of Wittelsbach, appealed unsuccessfully ag…

Stille im Lande

(327 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[English Version] Stille im Lande, Sammelbez. für eine Vielzahl unterschiedlichster Gruppierungen und Einzelgestalten der mitteleur. Frömmigkeit, v.a. im Übergang vom Pietismus des 18. zu den Erweckungsbewegungen des 19.Jh. Der Begriff knüpft an Luthers Übers. von Ps 35,20 (»Vnd suchen falsche sachen widder die stillen jm lande«, WA.DB 10/I,209) an und ist myst. konnotiert (Dt. Mystik [: III.,3., b], Kirchenlied). Allen S.i.L. gemein war das Bemühen um Intensivierung ihrer je eigenen Frömmigkeit. …

Schupp

(295 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[English Version] Schupp, Johann Balthasar (alias: Ambrosius Mellilambius, Antenor, Ehrnhold, Philander; März 1610 Gießen – 26.10.1661 Hamburg), luth. Theologe, Schriftsteller und Pädagoge. Nach Schulbesuch in Gießen, Studium in Marburg (seit 1625) und dreijähriger Bildungsreise nach Nordosteuropa M.A. in Rostock (1631); Rückkehr nach Marburg, Aufnahme rhetorischer Vorlesungen; 1634 Fortsetzung des Studiums in Leiden und Amsterdam. 1635 o.Prof. der Gesch. und Beredsamkeit in Marburg, dort Mittelpunk…

Territorialkirchengeschichte

(1,362 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[English Version] I. Begriff und Wesen Die T. (auch: Landeskirchengesch. [LKG]; Landeskirche) ist eine Teildisziplin der hist. Theol. (Kirchengeschichte). Sie bezieht sich auf verfaßte Kirchengebiete der Gegenwart (Kirchenordnungen) und bringt deren spezifische Traditionen und Eigenarten zur Geltung. Dabei sind die Interdependenzen von T., allg. Kirchengesch., Landesgesch. und allg. Gesch. hochgradig variant. Im Rahmen der hist. Theol. kommen der T. wichtige Funktionen zu: Die T. erschließt der hist. Theol. ein breites Spektrum örtlicher Quelle…

Sprögel

(163 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[English Version] Sprögel, Johann Heinrich (11.10.1644 Quedlinburg – 25.2.1722 Stolp, Pommern), luth. Theologe, Leitfigur der pietistischen Bewegung in Quedlinburg, Schwiegervater G. Arnolds. Studium in Leipzig, Lehrer am Stiftsgymnasium in Quedlinburg, 1681 Stiftsdiakon. Der Anschluß an den Pietismus (1689 Reise nach Leipzig; enge Kontakte zu A.H. Francke, den er 1694 traute; Einführung privater Erbauungsstunden; Ekstase und Separation auch in Quedlinburg) führte nach harten Kontroversen mit der Äb…

Rothmann

(280 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[English Version] (Rottmann), Bernhard (Bernd; 1495? Stadtlohn – 1535 Münster?), röm.-kath. Priester (1529), Begründer der ev. Gemeinde in Münster (1532), wichtigster Theologe des dortigen Täuferreiches (Täufer; 1534/35). Nach Schulbesuch in Deventer, Münster und Alkmar war R. zunächst Lehrer in Warendorf (1524 M.A. in Mainz), dann Kaplan an St. Mauritz in Münster (1529). R. begann sein reformatorisches Wirken in Münster (Reise nach Wittenberg, wo er Luther verfehlte, und nach Straßburg, wo er unte…

Articles of Faith

(2,807 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian | Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. Western Church – II. Eastern Church I. Western Church CD=Corpus (Corpora) doctrinae, CO=Church Order 1. Concept and Content. Articles of faith are officially authorized, textually authenticated doctrinal statements (Confession [of faith]), confession collections, CD) through which a constitutionally organized (Church order) Christian church articulates its own confessional insights, formulates a normat…
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