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Lycurgus

(3,281 words)

Author(s): Piepenbrink, Karen
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos; Latin Lycurgus) A. Historical dimension According to ancient tradition, L. was the founder of the political and social order of Sparta. He was held to be a great lawgiver, and was also venerated in cult. Even in Antiquity, however, his historical existence was doubted. There was also doubt, among those who thought him a historical figure, as to the period in which he lived. Plutarch offers a spectrum of possible dates in his biography of L., ranging from the time of the Heracleidae, i.e. mythical prehistory, to the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Lycurgus 1). There is also unc…
Date: 2016-02-22

Alcibiades

(3,488 words)

Author(s): Piepenbrink, Karen
(Ἀλκιβιάδης/ Alkibiádēs; Latin Alcibiades) A. Historical dimension The Athenian general and politician A. ( c. 450–404/03 BC) was one of the most brilliant yet controversial figures of Athenian democracy in the 5th cent. BC. Following the death of his father, he grew up in the household of his uncle and guardian Pericles. He was a pupil of Socrates, with whom he remained in close contact into his adult years, a fact that already aroused comment among his contemporaries, not least because of A.' charisma and …
Date: 2016-02-22

Gracchi

(3,188 words)

Author(s): Piepenbrink, Karen
( Tiberius and Gaius Sempronius Gracchus; Greek Τιβέριος Γράγχος/ Tibérios Grágchos and Γάϊος Γράγχος/ Gáïos Grágchos) A. Historical dimension The 'G.' were the brothers Tiberius (Ti.) and Gaius (C.) Sempronius Gracchus (162–133 and 153–121 BC respectively), sons of the legendary Cornelia. They became famous in particular through their activities as Roman people's tribunes. Successively occupying this office, they undertook attempts at reform to deal with the social consequences of Roman expansion, such as Itali…
Date: 2016-02-22

Sulla

(3,626 words)

Author(s): Piepenbrink, Karen
( Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix; Greek Λεύκιος Κορνήλιος Σύλλας/ Leúkios Kornḗlios Sýllas) A. Historical dimension The Roman politician and general L. Cornelius S. (138–78 BC) is primarily remembered as a dictator of the Roman Republic. His early political career was fundamentally shaped by his rivalry with the seven-times consul Gaius Marius, in whose armies he served in various functions. During the Numidian War, in which he commanded a cavalry detachment with distinction, he succeeded in 107 BC in compell…
Date: 2016-02-22