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(47 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] M. III, king of Iberia [1] in Caucasia, sent an embassy by Constantius [2] II in 360/61 to recruit him to the Roman side against the Persians (Amm. Marc. 21,6,8). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W. Enßlin, s.v. M., RE 15, 1028 PLRE 1, 598.


(117 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Georgian 'ruler fortress' (Kartlis Cḫovreba p. 17; 33 et passim) [1]. Rock-cut city (9.5 ha) in Iberia [1], about 20 km to the east of Gori on the northern bank of the Cyrus [5] (1st millennium BC to 18th cent. AD). In the Roman Imperial period U. was expanded into a city with ditches and clay-brick walls on a stone foundation; the cave sites were partly inspired by the Hellenistic rock-cut architecture of Asia Minor. A system of streets with drainage channels and cisterns survives. The city was significant in the Georgian Middle Ages. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jen…


(114 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γυηνός; Gyēnós). Town in the  Colchis (Ps.-Scyl. 81). Now linked with the ancient settlement (6th cent. BC ─ 6th cent. AD) near Očamčire on the Georgian Pontus coast, discovered in 1935/6 during the construction of the harbour. The ancient finding points to three man-made hills surrounded by ditches with remains of wooden architecture with a pounded clay floor; apart from Colchic ceramics, fragments of ancient Ionian and Attic red-figured ceramics as well as black-glazed ceramics were found. Worthy of mention as the latest building is a hall church with pastophoria ( o…


(53 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Town on the Colchis coast, c. 20 km north of modern Batumi. Extensive necropolis from the 6th-2nd cents. BC with Attic black-figured and red-figured ceramics; the synchronous Greek settlement (Matium? Plin. HN 6,12) has not been proven to date. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography D. Braund, Georgia in Antiquity, 1995, 109-117.

Caspii montes

(104 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] Κάσπιον ὄρος; Káspion óros is, according to Eratosthenes (in Str. 11,2,15), the indigenous name of the Caucasus; according to Ptol. 5,13,4 it is the mountain range separating Armenia from the Parthian province of Media (modern Talyš mountains, the border between Azerbaijan and Iran). In Mela 1,109 and Plin. HN 5,99, the Caspii montes are an independent mountain range, alongside the Caucasus, probably the Elburz mountain range with Mt. Demavend (5670 m). According to Amm. Marc. 23,6,74, they formed the northern border of the Persian empire. Plontke-Lüning, Annegre…


(139 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Παρικάνιοι; Parikánioi). [German version] [1] People in the Fergana region The P. are mentioned together with the Orthocorybantii in the list of peoples who had to pay tributes to Artaxerxes [1] I in Hdt. 3,92; it is assumed that their settlement area was in the Fergana region in modern Afghanistan. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] People with a main town of Paricane in Persis In Hecat. FGrH 1 F 282, the P. are a people with a main town of Paricane in Persis; it is probably these P., to whom Hdt. 3,94 refers, assigning them to a nomós together with the Asiatic Aethiopia…


(197 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes (Ἁρμοζική; Harmozikḗ Str. 11,3,5; Ἀρμάκτικα; Harmáktika Ptol. 5,11,3; 8,19,4; Hermastis iuxta Cyrum Plin. HN 6,29; Armastika Geogr. Rav. 2,8; Georgian Armaziḫe, ‘fortress of the Armazi’). Residence of the kings of the Caucasian  Iberia on the Bagineti hill in modern Mccheta south opposite the confluence of the  Aragus into the  Cyrus; conquered by Pompey in 65 BC. Excavations since 1937 have revealed buildings of Hellenistic and Roman times: fortress wall (clay brick wall on a stone block foun…


(120 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Φασιανοί; Phasianoí, Xen. An. 4,6,5), a tribe mentioned together with the Chalybes and Taochi that lived on the Phasis, a river that should not be identified with the Phasis in Colchis (modern Rioni/ Georgia) but with the modern Pasinsu (Armenian Basean) that flows into the Araxes [1]/ Aras at Pasinler. The region known as Pasean in Armenian and Basiani in Georgian corresponds approximately to the modern region of Basen/Pasen with the city of Pasinler, c. 60 km east of Erzurum in north-eastern Turkey. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography W.E.D. Allen, A His…


(103 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids (Procop. Goth. 4,13 f.; Agath. 2,22 III 5 f.). Heavily fortified capital city of Lazica, on the Doconus (Georgian Techuri) north of the  Phasis; could not be taken in the Byzantine-Persian wars of 550-55; destroyed by the Arabs in the 9th cent. The ruins are in West Georgia in the place today called Nokalakevi (‘Old City’): wall with fortification, palace, thermae, basilica, acropolis. Extensive excavations. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography A. M. Schneider, in: Forsch. und Fortschritte 7, …


(172 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Ἡνίοχοι/ Heníochoi, Ps.-Scyl. 71). In the 5th cent. BC, a large group of tribes on the Caucasian coast of the Pontus - then a densely wooded area with many inlets - between the Zygi and the Achaeans in the north and the San(n)igae in the south.  Pityus/Picunda was founded in the territory of the H. The H. raised cattle and engaged in piracy with light boats (Str. 11,2,14) and were subjugated towards the end of the 4th cent. BC by the Bosporan king  Eumelus [4], who campaigned agai…


(88 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σευσάμορα/Σεισάμορα; Seusámora/ Seisámora). One of three cities of Iberia in the Caucasus mentioned by name in Str. 11,3,5; a fortress on the route through the valley of the Aragus (modern Aragvi) to the Portae Caucasiae (modern Dariali), near the modern town of Cicamuri in Georgia. Excavations: Hellenistic city wall and buildings with ashlar foundations (with cramp insets), clay brick walls above and tiled roofs. Harmozice; Iberia [1] Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography O. Lordkipanidze, Das alte Georgien (Kolchis und Iberien) in Strabons …


(498 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Colonization | Patricius Military colony in the area of the  Sindi in the north-west Pontus Euxinus (Str. 11,2,10; Steph. Byz. s.v. Γοργιπία; civitas Sindica, Plin. HN 6,1) in the place of modern Anapa. Founded in the late 6th cent. BC [1. 7], the city had a harbour (originally Σινδική, Σινδικὸς λιμήν; Sindikḗ, Sindikòs limḗn, Ps.-Scymn. 888f.; Peripl. m. Eux. 65; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 29) and was officially named after the Spartocid Gorgippus after its integration into the Bosporus Kingdom (  Regnum …


(121 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Κυταιίς; Kytaiís, Apoll. Rhod. 2,1267; Κύταια; Kýtaia, schol. ad Lycoph. Alexandra 1312; Κόταϊς; Kótaïs (τὸ φρούριον), Procop. Goth. 4,14,49; 4,14,51 Agathias 2,19,1). City in  Colchis, on the headwaters of the modern Kutaisi on the middle Rioni ( Phasis) in Georgia. Archaeological finds indicate the existence of a settlement with acropolis from the 7th cent. BC; fragments of Greek pottery indicate contacts between inland Colchis and the Mediterranean region from the 7th/6th cents. BC. In the…


(113 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Ζάλισσα/ Zálissa). Town in Iberia [1], mentioned only in Ptol. 5,10,2, identified with Dzalisa in Muxranital, about 45 km to the northwest of Tbilisi in Georgia. In the northwest of the area, there is a citadel, in the plain the site of the 2nd cent. BC to 8th cent. AD town (approximately 70 ha), among other things remains of a palace with a mosaic of Dionysus (3rd cent. AD; [1]) and three-roomed thermal baths (serial type), a further thermal bath with a natatio (Piscina [2]), streets, water conduits and sewers survive. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography 1 M…

Portae Caspiae

(85 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Plin. HN 6,30; Πύλαι Κάσπιαι/ Pýlai Káspiai: Hecat. FGrH 1 F 286; Str. 11,5,4; 11,12,5; Θύραι Κάσπιαι/ Thýrai Káspiai: Ios. Ant. Iud. 18,4,4). The modern Sirdara Pass in the Elburs mountains (Caspii montes), between Media and Parthia, 60 km to the northeast of Teheran. At the same time the name was also used for the road from Darband to the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography M. Schottky, Parther, Meder und Hyrkanier, in: AMI 24, 1991, 61-135, esp. 123.


(157 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Γέῤῥος; Gérrhos). [German version] [1] River in the north Pontus River in the north Pontus between  Borysthenes and  Maeotis, the border between the monarchic and nomadic Scythians, identified as modern Moločnaja voda (Ptol. 3,5,4; Plin. HN 4,84, Gerrhus). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Region around modern Nicopol/Ukraine Region around modern Nicopol/Ukraine, in the 5th/4th cents. BC centre of the monarchic Scythians and seat of their rulers, who were buried in large kurgans ( Funerary architecture) (Hdt. 4,71). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) …


(144 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Γωγαρηνή; Gōgarēnḗ), Str. 11,14,4f.; Ptol. 5,12,4; χωρίον μεταξὺ Κόλχων καὶ Ἰβήρων ανατολικῶν, Steph. Byz. 216; Armenian Gugark, AŠX 5,22 [1]). Fertile plateau in ancient times (olive-growing, etc.) in the Little Caucasus south-east of Cyrus bend, possibly corresponding to modern southern Georgia and parts of northern Armenia; frontier district between Armenia and Iberia with changing ownership: in the 5th/4th cents. BC G. belonged to Armenia, in the 3rd cent. to Iberia, in the 2nd cent. G. was…

Lazica, Lazice

(281 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Procop. Pers. 1,1,28 i.a., Agathias 2,18,4, i.a.: Λαζική; Lazikḗ). Term for Colchis in early Byzantine sources after the Kartvelian tribe of the Lazae, who were located in the interior south of the river Phasis in the 1st cent. AD and in the 4th cent. acquired the hegemony over Colchis and the tribes of the Abasci, Apsilae, Misimiani, Scymni and Svani. The capital was Archaeopolis (Procop. Pers. 2,29,18), which is identified with the ruined town near modern Nokalakevi on the Techuri (Glaucus?) in wes…


(118 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] (Σάσπειρες/ Sáspeires: Hdt. 1,104; 110; 3,94; 4,37; 40; 7,79; Σάπειρες/ Sápeires: Apoll. Rhod. 2,395; Ἑσπερῖται/ Hesperȋtai: Xen. An. 7,8,25; Str. 14,1,39; Latin Sapires: Amm. Marc. 22,8,21). East Kartvelian tribe, according to Herodotus between the Colchians and the Medes, and belonging to the eighteenth satrapy together with the Matienians and the Alarodians (3,18); documented probably from the 3rd century BC onward; on the upper reaches of the Acampsis/Çoruh, it can be identified with the city of Sp…


(184 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
[German version] City in West-Georgia, c. 25 km southwest of Kutaisi, a centre of ancient Colchis. In 1896, a structure with three terraces which had been destroyed in the mid 1st cent. BC began to be excavated (with interruptions). Three phases could be distinguished (I: 8th-6th cents.; II: 5th-4th cents.; III: 3rd-1st cents. BC). Several buildings were uncovered (a surrounding wall with gate in phase III) as well as tombs (gold jewellery with granulation); the finds include a large number of Greek …
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