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Pachomius Rhusanos

(197 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[English Version] (Pachomios Rh.; 1508 auf Zakynthos – 1553 ebd.), Theologe und Volkserzieher in der Turkokratie. Nach Studien in Venedig, zeitweilig Mönch im Kloster Iviron (Athos). Durch sein solides Wissen in der klassischen und bibl.-patr. Lit. wurde er zur warnenden Stimme vor gefährlichen Lehren seiner Zeit. In seiner Schrift »Über den Nutzen der Hl. Schrift« (PG 98, 1333A–1360A) empfiehlt er diese als Heilmittel gegen die rel.-sittliche Unwissenheit bzw. den Verfall der Sprache in barbarisc…


(244 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[English Version] 1.Johannes , (1498 Nauplion, Peloponnes – 1580 Konstantinopel). Nach seinem Studium in Padua wirkte Z. als Notar in seiner Geburtsstadt, ab 1555 als Rhetor und Didaskalos in Konstantinopel an der Patriarchalakademie. Sein theol. Werk ist unbedeutend (Schrift gegen die Azyma); an der Korrespondenz mit den Tübinger Theologen war er nur am Rande befaßt. 1576/77 verfolgte er im Auftrag des Patriarchen den völlig unrealistischen Plan, den dt. Kaiser in Wien (Maximilian II.) zum Anschluß an die Orthodoxie zu bewegen. Gerhard Podskalsky Bibliography G. Podskalsk…


(150 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[English Version] Notaras, Makarios (Taufname: Michael; 1751 Korinth – 16.4.1805 Chios); Verwandter des Chrysanthos Notaras. Zunächst Mönch im Kloster Mega Spelaion (Peloponnes), dann Lehrer in seiner Heimatstadt, wurde er 1764 zu deren Metropolit bestimmt. Wegen kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen mit den Türken mußte er nach Zakynthos fliehen, wo er mit Nikiforos  Theotokis zusammentraf. Die Flucht zog seine Absetzung nach sich (1773); inzw. hatte er auf der Insel Hydra Nikodemos Hagiorites kennen…

Mark of Ephesus, Saint

(241 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (Markos Eugenikos, baptismal name Manuel; born Constantinople, 1391, died Constantinople, Jun 23, 1444/1445), conciliar theologian and ecclesiastical politician. He received a humanistic education in rhetoric from John Chortasmenos (Metropolitan Ignatius of Selymbria) and in philosophy from G.G. Plethon, but he was not an original thinker. His temperament led him in the direction of the monastic theology of G. Palamas. After becoming archbishop of Ephesus in 1437, as a delegate at the Council of Ferrara-Florence, he led the debate on the Filioque

Beccus, John

(164 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1225, Nicea? – 1297, in the fortress of St. George near Nicomedia). After ordination to the diaconate, Beccus served as chartophylax (archivist) and chief sacristan of the Hagia Sophia; ultimately he became patriarch following the Second Council of Lyon (1274), which approved reunion with the Western Church. Beccus initially opposed the un…

Caryophylles, John

(160 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1600, Karyai, Thracia – after 1693, Bucharest), an Orthodox lay theologian, Grand Logothet of the Ecumenical patriarchate (1676–1691), student of the Aristotelian Theophilos Korydaleus, and teacher. Since Caryophylles belonged to the circle surrounding Patriarch Cyril Lucaris, who was suspected of Calvinism, he also was subject to the same suspicion for more than a decade, primarily because, owing to his conservative rejection of a mixture of philosophy and theology and a more spiritual doctrine of the Eucharist ¶ preserving its mystery, he was unwillin…

Andrew of Caesarea

(128 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] Archbishop of Caesarea (Cappadocia; 6th/7th cent.). The first extant commentary on the Apocalypse in Greek, after those of Melito of Sardis (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV, 26.2) and Origen (TU 38/3), was the work of Oecumenius, which Andrew attacked in his own anti-Origenistic and anti-dispensationalist commentary (between 563 and 614). At the same time, he defended the canonicity and inspiration of thi…

Zigabenus, Euthymios

(128 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (or Zigadenos; 12th cent.), monk, theologian, and exegete in Constantinople. His magnum opus is a refutation of all heresies throughout church history, written in response to a directive from Emperor Alexius I (Πανοπλία δογματική/ Panoplía dogmatikḗ, comparable to the roughly contemporaneous Θησαυρός/ Thēsaurós of Nicetas Choniates). Also important are his commentaries (the last for Byzantium) on the Psalms, Gospels, and Epistles, outstanding for their philological precision, though otherwise they simply build on the work of John Chrysostom. Gerhard Podska…

Le Quien, Michel

(209 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (Oct 8, 1661, Boulogne-sur-Mer – Mar 12, 1733, Paris), church historian, philologist, and controversial theologian. In 1681, he entered the Dominican order. In 1690 he published a monograph defending the Hebrew text of the Bible and the Vulgate translation, and between 1725 and 1731 he wrote several works on the invalidity of Anglican ordinations. In 1712, he had already published the works of John of Damascus in two volumes (PG 94–96; a third volume of “traces” never appeared). A…

Symeon of Thessalonica

(162 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (2nd half of the 14th cent., Constantinople – Sep, 1429, Thessalonica) was made archbishop of Thessalonica between June of 1416 and April of 1417; while there he had to endure the siege of the city by Sultan Murad II from 1422 until his death. His extensive writings include liturgical, dogmatic, and heresiological works. In the natural sciences, he recognized the superiority of the Latins; theologically, however, he was a convinced Palamite. His commentary on the Divine Liturgy and other services is still read. Gerhard Podskalsky Bibliography Works: PG 155 Συμεώv ἀρχι…

Plethon, George Gemistus

(378 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1360, Constantinople – Jun 26, 1452, Mistra, Pelepponese), the last Byzantine philosopher (Neoplatonist; Neoplatonism) and social reformer. He studied Judaism and Zoroastrianism (Zarathustra) in Bursa; some time before 1414 he moved (banished?) to Mistra, where his students included Bessarion, Mark of Ephesus, and Laonicus Chalcocondyles. He participated in the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1437–1441; Basel), where he translated his original name Gemistos (“filled”) as Plethon, with deliberate echoes of Plato. He influenced the Italian Rena…

Barlaam of Calabria

(162 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1290, Seminara, Calabria – 1348, Avignon) came to Constantinople as a monk in 1325, where he conducted a debate over philosophy and astronomy in 1330. He discussed theological issues with legates from Pope John XXI in 1334/1335 and wrote a series of treatises directed against the Filioque and papal primacy. He used a political mission to Avignon (1339) as an opportunity for unification discussions (Unions with …

Blemmydes, Nicephoros

(156 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (1197/1198, Constantinople – 1271/1273) studied trivium/quadrivium at different places (Smyrna, Skamandros, Ephesus, Nymphaion, Nikaia), studied theology at Latros (1233). Blemmydes defended Greek interests position in union negotiations in 1234 and 1250. He made many journeys, including to Palestine (1237). In 1248 Blemmydes founded a monastery …

Akindynos, Gregorios

(144 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (born 1300, Prilep, died before May, 1348, in exile) studied in Pelagonia (Bitola) and Thessalonica; he was acquainted with Palamas and NicephorusGregoras. After meeting with Barlaam of Calabria, he mediated between Barlaam and Palamas (1336) with regard to the former's anti-Latin writings concerning the indemonstrability of revelation. In 1337, after the start of the Palamite controversy, he engaged in another attempt at mediation; the final break came after the synod of 1341, which condemned Akindynos ( RAPC 2212). He was ord…

Meniates, Elias

(198 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (1669, Lixuri, island of Kefalonia – Aug 1, 1714, Patras), Greek preacher and controversial theologian, at first in the city of Venice, where he was studying (theology, Gk, Lat.); he officiated as bishop of Kernitza (Kalavryta, Peloponnese) from 1711 onward. His sermons, which became famous, were influenced by the great pulpit orators of France and Italy (Paolo Segneri the Elder SJ, J.-B. Bossuet, Louis Bourdaloue SJ, Jean-Baptiste Massillon), and were regarded as models by succee…

Nilus of Rossano, Saint

(269 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (Neilos, also Nilus the Younger; c. 910 Rossano, province of Cosenza, Calabria – Sep 26, 1004, abbey of Sant’Agata, on the Via Latina). Probably married in his youth, he became a Basilian monk in 940, initially as a hermit. Later he founded a monastery in Rossano, but Saracen raids induced him to leave Calabria. After a period in the monastery of Vallelucio (from 979), in 994 he founded the monastery of Serperi near Gaëta, where in 999 he received Emperor Otto III after Otto’s pil…

Nectarius of Jerusalem

(246 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (Nikolaos Pelopidas; 1605, Kandia, Crete – Jul 14, 1676, St. Michael’s Monastery, Jerusalem). After elementary education under Meletios Makres, in 1625 Nectarius entered St. Catharine’s Monastery (Sinai) as a monk. In 1645, he studied for a year under Theophilos Korydaleus in Athens. In May 1660, he was elected archbishop of Sinai. Without having assumed this office, he was elected patriarch of Jerusalem on Jan 25, 1661 (consecration on Apr 9). Together with the patriarch of Const…

Maximus Margunius

(330 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[German Version] (baptismal name Manuel; c. 1549, Chandakas [?], Crete – Jul 1, 1602, Venice), theologian, philologist, and a supporter of ecumenism. His mother was descended from the well-known Colonna family of Rome. He took his first lessons under Gaspare Viviani, the Latin vicar general in Candia, and was thus attuned to the symbiosis of Latin and Greek intellectualism at an early age. He began higher studies in Padua around 1569 (philology, philosophy, Scholastic theology, medicine). His fell…


(249 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[English Version] (Neilos) von Rossano (auch N. d.J.; um 910 Rossano, Provinz Cosenza, Kalabrien – 26.9.1004 Kloster St. Agata an der Via Latina), Heiliger (Fest: 26.9.). In seiner Jugend wohl verheiratet, wurde N. 940 Basilianermönch (Basilianer-Orden), zunächst als Einsiedler, dann als Klostergründer in Rossano. Sarazenenüberfälle veranlaßten ihn, Kalabrien zu verlassen. Nach Aufenthalt im Kloster Vallelucio (ab 979) gründete er 994 das Kloster Serperi bei Gae¨ta, wo er 999 Kaiser Otto III. nach d…


(119 words)

Author(s): Podskalsky, Gerhard
[English Version] (Zigadenos), Euthymios (12.Jh.), Mönch, Theologe und Exeget in Konstantinopel. Als Hauptwerk gilt eine auf Anordnung Kaiser Alexios' I. vf. Widerlegung aller Häresien der Kirchengesch. (Παn̆οπλι´α δογματικη´/Panoplía dogmatikē´, vergleichbar dem etwa gleichzeitigen Θησαυρο´ς/Thēsaurós des Niketas Choniates). Wichtig sind auch seine (für Byzanz letzten) Komm. zu den Pss, Ev. und Apostelbriefen, die sich durch philol. Genauigkeit auszeichnen, ansonsten aber an Johannes Chrysostomus anschließen. Gerhard Podskalsky Bibliography Quellen: PG 128–1…
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