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Pre- and Early History

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Porr, Martin
1. The subject or object of pre- and early history is the entire section of the history of humanity that is accessible only through unwritten, material remnants of human activity. However, the presentation is usually limited to the period from the Old Stone (Paleolithic) Age to the end of the New Stone (Neolithic) Age in Europe. The time-span, then, would be from the moment of evidence of first human artifacts (stone tools), some two-and-one-half to three million years ago, to the sedentary move…


(1,245 words)

Author(s): Porr, Martin
The Cave as Place of Worship 1. Caves, as places of cultic, ritual or religious actions in the broadest sense, are a worldwide phenomenon. They can neither be circumscribed by a historical period, nor simply connected with particular societal forms. Caves, in all times and on all continents, serve as particular fixed points in the landscape of nature. By way of their natural structure as ‘gates to another world,’ they play an important role in human beings' cultural and mythological interpretation of the environment. Old Stone Age 2. In the section of human history accessible only…