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Ceionius

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 78 AD A native of Etruria; senator from the time of Nero; cos. ord. 78; governor of Syria from AD 78/79; married to Appia Severa (PIR2 C 603) [1. I 308; 2. 45 A. 22]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 106 AD Son of [1]. Cos. ord. AD 106 (PIR2 C 604). Married to one Plautia, their son being C. [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Commodus, L. = Aelius Caesar, L. Cos. ord. 136 AD Son of [2]. His maternal half-brother was M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus [3. 845]. Born on 13 January in about AD 1…

Saturninus

(490 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1-2] See Ap(p)uleius [I 10-11]. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [German version] [3] Emperor for a short time, 3rd cent. Was elevated to emperor by the army at the time of Gallienus, but killed by the soldiers a short time afterwards because of his severity (SHA Tyr. Trig. 23; cf. SHA Firmus 11,1; SHA Gall. 9,1). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2, 230  PLRE 1, 805 no. 1. [German version] [4] Imperator Caesar C. Iulius S. Augustus of Moorish extraction, followed a military career (Zos. 1,66,1; SHA Quatt. tyr. 9,5; Zon. 12,29), until Aurelianus [3] appointed him dux l…

Festus

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] see Marcius Festus see  Marcius Festus Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Iulius F. Hymetius Rom. official, proconsul Africae AD 366-368 served around AD 350 as corrector Tusciae et Umbriae, later as praetor urbanus and consularis Campaniae cum Samnio (before 355). In 362, he became vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 11,30,29), and from 366 to 368 proconsul Africae (Cod. Theod. 9,19,3; his entire career: ILS 1256). As proconsul, he helped to alleviate a famine in Carthage, and in this context was sentenced to a fine as a result of b…

Olympiodorus

(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Poliorketes twice illegally appointed him (in 294/3 and 293/2) as eponymous árchōn (Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 and SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 No. 9]; cf. in general Plut. Demetrius 34), O., when Athens seceded from Demetrius in 2…

Thalassius

(456 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θαλάσσιος; Thalássios). [German version] [1] Follower of Constantius [2] II, 4th cent. AD (Thalassius). Praefectus praetorio Orientis 351-353, from a family of curiales [2] of the East. Little is known about his career, but T. was obviously a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II: in 345, he acted as the emperor's comes in Aquileia; in 351, he held a high office at his court in Cibalae (Zos. 2,48,5); still in the same year, T. - probably a Christian - entered into the office of praetorian prefect of the East (Artemii Passio…

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Eugenius

(682 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
(Εὐγένιος; Eugénios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eugenius Roman usurper, rhetor and emperor, about AD 400 Roman usurper in AD 392-394. He was a Christian, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric in Rome and he became magister scrinii for Valentinian II around 392 (Zos. 4,54,1). On 22 August 392 he was elevated to the position of emperor by Arbogast (Socr. 5,25; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,22,4). Constantly controlled by Arbogast, he first sought an agreement with Ambrosius and Theodosius I (Ambr. Epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). He was not …

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Hypatius

(397 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Student of Libanius, consularis Palaestinae primae 360/1 AD Student of  Libanius, from whom he received letters (Lib. Ep. 137; 157; 158). In AD 360/361 he was consularis Palaestinae primae (Lib. Ep. 156; 159). PLRE 1, 447 (H.us 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Flavius H. Brother of empress Eusebia, consul 359 AD Brother of empress  Eusebia. Together with his brother Fl. Eusebius he was consul in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,1,1). In 363 he was possibly vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 3,5,8). He was sentenced along with his brother in a trial …

Domitianus

(2,341 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor, born AD 51 Roman emperor; original name T. Flavius Domitianus = Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] A. Up to the death of Titus Born on 24 Oct. AD 51 in Rome; his parents were T. Flavius  Vespasianus and Flavia Domitilla. D. spent his childhood in Rome; he did not accompany his father Vespasian to Judaea. His life was first threatened in the 2nd half of 69 during the reign of Vitellius, when D.'s father had already been proclaimed emperor, and fightin…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Severus

(1,402 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Σευῆρος; Seuêros). [German version] [1] Platonist, 2nd cent.? Platonist, probably 2nd cent. AD. He wrote a monograph On the soul [1. 80, 299; 2. 409-13, 428 f., 435 f.] and a commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [1. 52, 217 f.; 2. 407-9]. He appears in these works to be an original-minded, somewhat stoicizing interpreter of Aristotle’s doctrine of categories [1. 259; 2. 413 f.; 3. 66, 288 f.], and of Plato’s theories of the soul [1. 299; 3. 56, 278 f.] and of the origin of the world [4. 116-18, 417-21]. His works …

Eusebius

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography …

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanell…

Victor

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
('winner, victor(ious)'). [German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen, only attested from the mid-1st cent. BC (Cic. Att. 14,14,2), but from then one of the commonest bynames, and a name of choice. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 57; 72; 89; 96; 98; 278 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, 1996, 100 f. [German version] [2] Roman epithet for gods (Roman epithet for gods), see Hercules; Iuppiter; Mars; Tibur. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3] Imperial title Roman Imperial title from the early 4th cent. AD. While the victorious exploits of emperors in the 1st-3rd cents. were celebrated mostly in specific bynames of conquest, e.g.

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist …
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