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Blume, Clemens Ferdinand Anton

(159 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1862, Billerbeck – Apr 8, 1932, Königstein), Jesuit hymnologist and liturgist. After graduating from Stella Matutina, the Jesuit gymnasium in Feldkirch (A) (1878), he entered the Jesuit order. From 1886 to 1897 he was professor of classical languages at Stella Matutina. While in Munich from 1903 to 1909, he engaged in extensive studies of Latin hymnology; in 1909 he became professor of liturgics at the Jesuit seminary of Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt. Besides many major and minor studies on theological and hymnological topics, his primary work is the edition of Ana…

Psalmody

(621 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The term psalmody denotes the recital manner (cantillation) of the psalms and canticles of the Old and New Testaments (psalm tones). In its basic structure and function it resembles the reading tones and oration tones. Psalm tones follow the literary structure of the psalms and serve to make their acoustic quality clear (one verse consists of two half-verses: parallelismus membrorum). In the cantillation system of the Latin West, a psalm tone consists of three elements: recitation tone (tenor, tuba), intonation formula ( initium or reintonation at the start of …

Semiology, Gregorian

(402 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Gregorian semiology (from Gk sēmeíon, “symbol, sign” and lógos, “meaning”) is the scholarly research required for an interpretation of Gregorian chant based on the performance practices recorded in the earliest notated manuscripts. In a culture of oral tradition, the purpose of representing the chants by lineless (adiastematic) neumes in the 10th and early 11th centuries was not primarily to record the melody but to convey broader interpretive instructions regarding rhetoric, rhythm, agog…

Oratio Tone

(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The oratio tone is the model for the chant of the priest’s prayers in the name of the congregation, or liturgies, especially oratios (collects/prayer of the day, super oblata/prayer over the gifts, post communionem/concluding prayer/prayer of thanksgiving), in the broader sense also cantillation formulas for eucharistic prayers (esp. the preface, verba testamenti), the Paternoster etc. with the same structure and significance as reading tones. Cantillated prayers are the oldest form of liturgical communication in words; some autho…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Children (RCIC)

(82 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo Initiationis Puerorum qui aetatem catecheticam adepti sunt, published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in the Liturgy. This special section of the Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults must not be confused with the rite of baptism for children. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, publ. International Committee on English in the Liturgy, vol. I, 1990.

Tenebrae

(201 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] ( Officium tenebrarum) is the special form combining Matins and Lauds (Liturgy of the hours) on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week which was in use until 1970. One of the 15 candles burning on a special candelabra was extinguished after each psalm (three times three in Matins and five in Lauds) or after the Benedictus, so that the end of the service took place in tenebris, in the dark. In the Middle Ages, the Tenebrae had special concluding prayers and songs, including congregational hymns; according to the Roman use Ps 51(50), the Miserere, was sung again. …

Neume

(194 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Neumes (from Gk νεῦμα/ neúma, “nod, sign”), first attested in the early 9th century, are the earliest forms of musical notation. Neumes represented all the sound for a single syllable, either a single pitch or a group of pitches; in the 11th century, neumes were set down in tabular form, along with their names. The original neumes were lineless (adiastematic, in campo aperto) and intended primarily to guide interpretation (rhythm, segmentation, dynamics, rhetoric, etc.) of a choral repertoire learned by rote. Neumed manuscripts were meant fo…

Gregorian Chant

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy 1. Catholic The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of Vatican II treats Gregorian chant as specially suited to the Roman liturgy; other things being equal, it should have pride of place (art. 116). This status, which does not judge other forms of church music, is based on the timelessly valid manner in which Gregorian chant is part of the liturgy itself; it is a musical expression of the biblical word in the context of liturgical theology and its primary…

Chorale Book

(398 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. ( Choralbuch) is a collective term for collections of Gregorian chant. Since the 10th century, these have included the gradual, cantatorium, troper, sequentiarium, kyriale, antiphonary (Antiphon), hymnary, processional, tonary, and directory/breviary/ordinary. Since 1905, the Editio Vaticana has published new editions for practical use. The formerly common Liber usualis (Antiphonary) has been made obsolete by liturgical reform. The collections in use today are the Graduale Romanum (1974) or Graduale triplex (1979), the Graduale simplex (21975), and …

Marian Antiphons

(545 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] conclude the daily Catholic liturgy of the hours (III); they are sung after Compline and in the German Stundenbuch also after Vespers (III). Although they were originally antiphons to psalms (IV) or the Magnificat , since the 12th/13th century they have been independent chants without psalmody – possibly resulting from the practice of commemoration – sung in praise of Mary at the time in the evening when, according to medieval belief, the archangel Gabriel spoke his χαῖρε/ chaíre (Luke 1:28): a daily memorial of the incarnation and a reference to the chris…

Sequence

(830 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgics A sequence is a non-biblical hymn sung during mass between the Alleluia and the Gospel (in the 1975 Ger. missal sung before the Alleluia); it has been an element of festal liturgies since the 9th century. The Roman Missal of 1570 included Victimae paschali laudes (Easter), Veni, Sancte Spiritus (Pentecost), Lauda Sion, Salvatorem (Corpus Christi), and the late medieval rhyming poem Dies irae, introduced as a sequence for requiems. In 1727 the Stabat mater was added for the feast of the Seven Sorrows of Mary. In the 1970 Missale Romanum (Ger. missal 1975), t…

Choral/Chorale

(839 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. In Catholic usage, German Choral is a collective term for the genuine liturgical music of the Western Latin liturgies (Liturgy). The music for the Gallo-Roman liturgy, which developed c. 750 in France (Metz), was initially called cantus romanus (Charlemagne) or cantilena romana (Paul the Deacon); later, on the basis of a legend concerning its origin, it came to be called Gregorian (the trope Gregorius praesul, c. 800; John the Deacon, 878). After the 12th century, other synonymous terms were used, primarily to distinguish it from polyphony. Since the 13th century, ca…

Wagner, Peter Josef

(218 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1865, Kürenz, near Trier – Oct 17, 1931, Fribourg), musicologist. After training with Michael Hermesdorff at the cathedral in Trier, he studied in Straßburg (Strasbourg) with Gustav Jacobsthal and in Berlin with Heinrich Bellermann and P. Spitta. In 1893 he received his habilitation from Fribourg and taught there as a lecturer; he was appointed associate professor in 1897 and full professor in 1902. In 1920/1921 he served as rector. In 1901 he founded the Gregorian Academ…

Gallican Chant

(307 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Even after the establishment of the “Gregorian” chant (Gregorian chant) around the year 900, samples of Gallican chant were preserved by a tradition-conscious oral transmission, and later transcribed. This repertoire is found in the Gregorian Codices, intermixed with the new chants. Gallican chants entered the Roman-Frankish liturgy where no Roman parallels were available (e.g. Introitus “Omnes gentes” for the 13th week of the year). They also serve as alternatives to standard ¶ chants (Greek/Latin Cherubic Hymn [Cherubikon] as Offertorium on Trinitatis) or r…

Tract

(378 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgics A tract is a psalmodically structured solo chant before the Gospel; it replaces the Alleluia during Lent and on the Ember Days. The name derives either from tractim (sung continuously) or from tractus in the sense of “extended,” or as a translation of εἰρμός/ eirmós, in the sense of a melodic type. The tract was chanted by a cantor in directum, i.e. without a respond by the congregation – as an additional lection rather than as a response. It has often been suggested that the tract is among the earliest mass chants, a remnant of…

International Fellowship for Research in Hymnology

(155 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Hymnologie, IAH). The IAH promotes and studies church singing (Singing: III). Church song, open forms of singing and the hymnal are the subjects of international, ecumenical, and interdisciplinary (theology, musicology, linguistics and literature, bibliography, folklore) scholarly study, primarily at conferences and through the promotion of hymnological projects (Hymnology) – often in cooperation with academic institutions – and also in rela…

Reading Tone

(206 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The reading tone is the model for musical recitation of liturgical lessons (cantillation). The speaking of lessons was unknown in the Early Church; recitation with “raised voice” denotes the special nature and standing of the Word of God and promotes better understanding. Elements of the reading tone are: recitation tone ( tenor); intonation; and¶ cadences ( flexa for short phrases, metrum for half-verse or long phrases, punctum for the end of the verse). These clarify the grammatical structure of a sentence acoustically, as also in the oration …

Gallican Liturgy

(308 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Old Gallican Liturgy – II. New Gallican Liturgy I. Old Gallican Liturgy First attested in 416 in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Bishop Decentius of Gubbio, this liturgy was replaced by the Roman-Frankish rite after 750. It was employed throughout Gaul and in parts of Italy and had many local variants whose dissemination by and large conformed to the provincial division of the Roman Empire. Numerous influences from Spain, Syria, and Constantinople enriched its literature and theology. As…

Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria

(179 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1858, Lucca – Nov 29, 1924, Brussels), was expected to follow in the footsteps of his father Michele as a church musician, but in 1880 he began studying with Amilcare Ponchielli in Milan and became an opera composer. Following his first operas, Le Villi, Edgar, and Manon Lescaut, he achieved international fame as a master of verismo with La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), and Madame Butterfly (four versions, 1904–1906). After his “horse opera” La Fanciulla del West and the operetta La Rondine, Puccini wrote three one-acters: Il Tabarro, Suor Angelica (for women’s ¶ vo…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA)

(76 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo initiationis christianae adultorum (1972) for the admission of adults into the Church by catechumenate and initiation (baptism, confirmation, first communion), published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in the Liturgy (subsequently dissolved by Rome). Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography The Rites of the Catholic Church, publ. International Committee on English in the Liturgy, vol. I, 1990.
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