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Liturgical Books

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl | Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox I. Catholic 1. General Introduction and History The binding nature of its basic elements (Scripture reading, the breaking of bread [Eucharist/Communion]) notwithstanding, the liturgy was initially celebrated quite freely with improvised prayers by the presiding priest (Just. 1 Apol. 67). Later on, model texts (Hipp., Traditio Apostolica ) served as points of reference. From the 4th century onwards, the major ecclesiastical centers (Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, Jerusalem, Byzantium…

Celebrant's Prayer/Chant

(352 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Historically, the German term Altargesang relates to texts that are sung only by the priest during the mass (celebrant's prayer), and in a broader sense to all sung parts of the liturgy that are led by a celebrant: collects, verses, litanies, Gospel and Epistle readings, responses between choir and congregation, blessings as well as the intoning of the Kyrie, the Gloria and the Creed. The churches of ¶ the Reformation added new compositions for the choir and the congregation. Luther's Deutsche Messe (1526) as a psalm or a hymn as I…

Oratio Tone

(177 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The oratio tone is the model for the chant of the priest’s prayers in the name of the congregation, or liturgies, especially oratios (collects/prayer of the day, super oblata/prayer over the gifts, post communionem/concluding prayer/prayer of thanksgiving), in the broader sense also cantillation formulas for eucharistic prayers (esp. the preface, verba testamenti), the Paternoster etc. with the same structure and significance as reading tones. Cantillated prayers are the oldest form of liturgical communication in words; some autho…

Church Music Scholarship

(3,563 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl | Ruff, Anthony William
[German Version] I. History of the Discipline – II. Current State of Research …

Hymn

(2,107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar | Lattke, Michael | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Term and Genre – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Liturgical Studies I. Term and Genre The Greek word ὕμνος/ hýmnos, whose etymology is obscure, originally meant, quite unspecifically, simply “song” (the verb ὑμνεῖν/ hymneín, “ to sing”; cf. Hes. Theog. 11.33; Hom. Hym. 3.178, etc.). Yet, from the ¶ 5th/4th century bce at the latest, it meant “song for a god” (cf. Plato, Leges 700 b 1–2; Xenophanes 21 B 1.13 DK; Xenophon, Cyrupaideia 18.1.23) and thence became the general term for “religious song,” and finally for “festival song,” “song o…

Liturgy

(8,787 words)

Author(s): Zimmerman, Joyce Ann | Neijenhuis, Jörg | Praßl, Franz Karl | Felmy, Karl Christian | Ebenbauer, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Phenomenology – II. History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Ethics – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Art History – IX. Asia, Africa, Latin America I. Phenomenology The term liturgy has been used for Christian worship since the end of the 16th century; by the end of the 18th century, it had gained general acceptance. In secular usage, Gk λειτουργία/ leitourgía means work done in public service (from λαός/ laós, “people” [Laity] and ἔργον/ érgon, “work”); the LXX used it for the temple cult. It appears only 15 times in the N…

Semiology, Gregorian

(402 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Gregorian semiology (from Gk sēmeíon, “symbol, sign” and lógos, “meaning”) is the scholarly research required for an interpretation of Gregorian chant based on the performance practices recorded in the earliest notated manuscripts. In a culture of oral tradition, the purpose of representing the chants by lineless (adiastematic) neumes in the 10th and early 11th centuries was not primarily to record the melody but to convey broader interpretive instructions regarding rhetoric, rhythm, agog…

New Year Festival

(992 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In societies that must adapt and respond to an environment dominated by marked seasonal variations (Seasons), the rhythms of the year are fundamental to the economic and social life of the community. Each New Year festival reflects a specific social structure, which is characterized in turn by a specific perception and assessment of the natural environment. Therefore a phenomenological listing of the various religious elements of the festival does not do justice …

Blume, Clemens Ferdinand Anton

(159 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Jan 31, 1862, Billerbeck – Apr 8, 1932, Königstein), Jesuit hymnologist and liturgist. After graduating from Stella Matutina, the Jesuit gymnasium in Feldkirch (A) (1878), he entered the Jesuit order. From 1886 to 1897 he was professor of classical languages at Stella Matutina. While in Munich from 1903 to 1909, he engaged in extensive studies of Latin hymnology; in 1909 he became professor of liturgics at the Jesuit seminary of Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt. Besides many major and minor studies on theological and hymnological topics, his primary work is the edition of Analecta hymnica Medii Aevi, a collection of medieval liturgical poetry begun by Guido M. Dreves. In the course of many journeys to libraries throughout Europe, he collected extensive source material for critical editions. Although his hymnographic theories are outdated, his researches on the textual history of the liturgical sequence remain significant. Franz Karl Praßl Bibliography L. Koch, Jesuitenlexikon, 1934, 218.

Psalmody

(621 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] The term psalmody denotes the recital manner (cantillation) of the psalms and canticles of the Old and New Testaments (psalm tones). In its basic structure and function it resembles the reading tones and oration tones. Psalm tones follow the literary structure of the psalms and serve to make their acoustic quality clear (one verse consists of two half-verses: parallelismus membrorum). In the cantillation system of the Latin West, a psalm tone consists of three elements: recitation tone (tenor, tuba), intonation formula ( initium or reintonation at the start of …

Gallican Liturgy

(308 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Old Gallican Liturgy – II. New Gallican Liturgy I. Old Gallican Liturgy First attested in 416 in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Bishop Decentius of Gubbio, this liturgy was replaced by the Roman-Frankish rite after 750. It was employed throughout Gaul and in parts of Italy and had many local variants whose dissemination by and large conformed to the provincial division of the Roman Empire. Numerous influences from Spain, Syria, and Constantinople enriched its literature and theology. As liturgical books without Roman influence are no longer extant, missing informa…

Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria

(179 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1858, Lucca – Nov 29, 1924, Brussels), was expected to follow in the footsteps of his father Michele as a church musician, but in 1880 he began studying with Amilcare Ponchielli in Milan and became an opera composer. Following his first operas, Le Villi, Edgar, and Manon Lescaut, he achieved international fame as a master of verismo with La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), and Madame Butterfly (four versions, 1904–1906). After his “horse opera” La Fanciulla del West and the operetta La Rondine, Puccini wrote three one-acters: Il Tabarro, Suor Angelica (for women’s ¶ vo…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA)

(76 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo initiationis christianae adultorum (1972) for the admission of adults into the Church by catechumenate and initiation (baptism, confirmation, first communion), published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in the Liturgy (subsequently dissolved by Rome).…

Ordinary Time

(200 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Outside the cycle of Easter and Christmas festivals, the Roman liturgy had three formulas, each depending on the date of Easter, for measuring six possible Sundays after Epiphany (Epiphany: V), and 23 for 28 possible Sundays after Pentecost. In the Middle Ages they were numbered both “after Pentecost” (until 1970, Cath. use) and “after Trinity” (Tr…

Rite for the Christian Initiation of Children (RCIC)

(82 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] is the English version of the Roman Catholic Ordo Initiationis Puerorum qui aetatem catecheticam adepti sunt, published in 1985 by the International Committee on English in …

Tenebrae

(201 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] ( Officium tenebrarum) is the special form combining Matins and Lauds (Liturgy of the hours) on the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of Passion Week which was in use until 1970. One of the 15 candles burning on a special candelabra was extinguished after each psalm (three times three in Matins and five in Lauds) or after the Benedictus, so that the end of the service took place in tenebris, in the dark. In the Middle Ages, the Tenebrae had special concluding prayers and songs, including congregationa…

Neume

(194 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] Neumes (from Gk νεῦμα/ neúma, “nod, sign”), first attested in the early 9th century, are the earliest forms of musical notation. Neumes represented all the sound for a single syllable, either a single pitch or a group of pitches; in the 11th century, neumes were set down in tabular form, along with their names. The original neumes were lineless (adiastematic, in campo aperto) and intended primarily to guide interpretation (rhythm, segmentation, dynamics, rhetoric, etc.) of a choral repertoire learned by rote. Neumed manuscripts were meant fo…

Gregorian Chant

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy 1. Catholic

Chorale Book

(398 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. ( Choralbuch) is a collective term for collections of Gregorian chant. Since the 10th century, these have included the gradual, cantatorium, troper, sequentiarium, kyriale, antiphonary (Antiphon), hymnary, processional, tonary, and directory/breviary/ordinary. Since 1905, the Editio Vaticana has published new editions for practical use. The formerly common Liber usualis (Antiphonary) has been made obsolete by liturgical reform. The collections in use today are the Graduale Romanum (1974) or Graduale triplex (1979), the Graduale simplex (21975), and …

Marian Antiphons

(545 words)

Author(s): Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] conclude the daily Catholic liturgy of the hours (III); they are sung after Compline and in the German Stundenbuch also after Vespers (III). Although they were originally antiphons to psalms (IV) or the Magnificat , since the 12th/13th century they have been independent chants without psalmody – possibly resulting from the practice of commemoration – sung in praise of Mary at the time in the evening when, according to medieval belief, the archangel Gabriel spoke his χαῖρε/ chaíre (Luke 1:28): a daily memorial of the incarnation and a reference to the chris…
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