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ASWĀR

(383 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
(Middle Persian) “horseman.” In Old Persian asabāra designated the horseman as opposed to the foot-soldier. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 877 ASWĀR (Middle Persian) “horseman,” Old Persian asabāra, Parthian (Nisa) ʾsbry, Persian savār and sovār. In Old Persian asabāra designated the horseman as opposed to the foot-soldier. Thus Darius says (DNb 44-45, Kent, Old Persian, pp. 139-40) “(as) a spearman I am a good spearman both on foot ( pastiš) and on horseback ( asabāra).” The same concept is expressed by “man and horse” ( asp ud mard, heterograph…
Date: 2016-10-05

KARTIR

(19,788 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
a prominent Zoroastrian priest in the second half of the 3rd century CE, known from his inscriptions and mentioned in Middle Persian, Parthian, and Coptic Manichean texts. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 6, pp. 608-628 KARTĪR (Kartēr, Kerdēr, Kerdīr, Kirdēr, Kirdīr), a prominent Zoroastrian priest in the second half of the 3rd century CE. This entry is divided into the following sections: i. Introduction Kartīr is known from his inscriptions in Fārs at Naqš-e Rajab (KNRb), to the left of the investiture relief of Ardašīr (r. 224-…
Date: 2013-12-12

BAŠKARDI

(4,426 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
(Bašākerdī), collective designation for numerous dialects spoken in southeastern Iran from Bandar-e ʿAbbās eastward, forming a transition from the dialects spoken in Fārs and Lārestān to Baluchi. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 8, pp. 846-850 BAŠKARDI (Bašākerdī),collective designation for numerous dialects spoken in southeastern Iran from Bandar-e ʿAbbās eastward, forming a transition from the dialects spoken in Fārs and Lārestān to Baluchi. History of research.Words and sentences from Baškardi dialects were quoted for the firs…
Date: 2016-11-02

BAGĀN YAŠT

(391 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
(1) one of the dādīg (legal) nasks of the Avesta, which contained descriptions of Ahura Mazdā and the other gods; (2) name of Yasna 19-21 of the Avesta. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 4, pp. 406 BAGĀN YAŠT (1) one of the dādīg (legal) nasks of the Avesta; (2) name of Y. 19-21 (see bag nask). The Bagān yašt (the Dēnkard has yast for yašt or yasn; the Persian Rivayats have Baḡān yašt and Bayān yašt), according to the brief account of it in the Dēnkard (8.15), contained descriptions of Ahura Mazdā, highest of all the gods (* wisp [ms. ystʾ] bayān abardom), and the rem…
Date: 2016-10-19

CHINESE TURKESTAN

(23,306 words)

Author(s): EIr | Victor Mair | Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Isenbike Togan | Morris Rossabi | Et al.
(Sinkiang, Xinjiang), IRANIAN ELEMENTS IN. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 5, pp. 460-484 CHINESE TURKESTAN i. Geographical Overview The eastern portion of the Central Asian land mass (see central asia i. geography), between 70° and 100° E and 25° and 45° N, encompasses Chinese Turkestan, now Sinkiang (Xin-jiang) Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, with the Tarim basin and the high plateaus and mountains surrounding it (capital Urumchi [Wu-lu-mu-chi]); Tibet (ca…
Date: 2014-05-26

BARSOM YAŠT

(199 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
in the liturgical manuscripts of the Avesta the name of the second hād (chapter) of the Yasna. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 8, pp. 827 BARSOM YAŠT, in the liturgical manuscripts of the Avesta the name of the second hād (chapter) of the Yasna. According to Darmesteter (I, p. 7), Yasna 2 as well as the following Yasna 3-4 ( Srōš darūn) complement Yasna 1, which announces to the gods the sacrifice. Yasna 2 draws their attention to the libation ( zaoΘra) and the barəsman, Yasna 3 to other offerings, and in Yasna 4 the offerings are consecrated to the gods. Yasna 2-3…
Date: 2013-04-15

BARIŠ NASK

(270 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
one of the lost nasks of the HaδamąΘra group of the Avesta, analyzed in Dēnkard 8.9. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 8, pp. 799-800 BARIŠ NASK, one of the lost nasksof the HaδamąΘra group (see AVESTA), analyzed in Dēnkard 8.9. According to the Persian Rivāyats,this nask contained originally sixty kardas,but only twelve were recovered after the time of Alexander. According to the summary of the Bariš nask in the Dēnkard,it contained matter concerning almost everything between heaven and earth, with perhaps a fair share of practical qu…
Date: 2016-11-01

AŽDAHĀ

(14,029 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø | M. Omidsalar | Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh | J. R. Russell
“dragon,” various kinds of snake-like, mostly gigantic, monsters living in the air, on earth, or in the sea (also designated by other terms) sometimes connected with natural phenomena, especially rain and eclipses. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 2, pp. 191-205 i. In Old and Middle Iranian At the time of the Indo-Iranian unity, the Indo-Iranians must have imagined dragons restraining the heavenly waters and causing drought, and not releasing them until slain by a god or hero, as in the Rigvedic myth of Indra an…
Date: 2017-01-13

AŠTĀD YAŠT

(212 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 826 AŠTĀD YAŠT, Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, Av. Arštāt-, the goddess of rectitude (or justice, see Aštād), does not mention her. The yašt is quite short (only nine verses including the holy formulas), and can be divided into three parts: Verses 1-2 feature the Aryan Glory ( airiianəm xᵛarəno), who is said to vanquish Aŋra Mainiuu, Aēšma (Fury), Būšiiąstā (Sloth), the Freezing Cold ( hąm. stərətəm aēxəm), the daēuua Apaoša (Drough…
Date: 2016-12-22

KARSĪVAZ

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Mahmoud Omidsalar
in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of the Turanian king, Afrāsiāb, and the man most responsible for the murder of the Iranian prince Siāvaš. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 6, pp. 607-608 KARSĪVAZ (Garsivaz), Av. Kərəsauuazdah; Pahl. Karsēwazd, in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of Av. Fraŋrasiian, Pahl. Frāsiyāb (Frāsyāw, Afrāsiyāb). The Avestan name meant “having meager ( k ə r ə sa-) fattiness ( vazdah-)” (cf. Kərəsāspa “having meager horses,” see KARSĀSP). This entry will be divided into the following sections: i. In the Aves…
Date: 2015-03-03

BAG NASK

(1,136 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
one of the Avestan nasks of the gāhānīg group, that is, texts connected with the GāΘās; it is now lost almost in its entirety. This nask is listed in the survey of the Avesta in Dēnkard 8.1.9. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 4, pp. 400-401 BAG NASK, one of the Avestan nasks of the gāhānīg group, i.e., texts connected with the GāΘās, now lost almost in its entirety (see avesta). This nask is listed in the survey of the Avesta in Dēnkard 8.1.9, is briefly described in 8.4, and its contents are resumed in Dēnkard 9.47-68 (also in the Persian Rivayats; see the bibliog…
Date: 2016-10-19

CLASS SYSTEM

(39,059 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Pierre Briant | Mansour Shaki | Ahmad Ashraf | Ali Banuazizi
( ṭabaqāt-e ejtemāʿī), a generic term referring to various types of social group, including castes, estates, status groups, and occupational categories. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 6, 7 pp. 650-691 CLASS SYSTEM ( ṭabaqāt-e ejtemāʿī), a generic term referring to various types of social group, including castes, estates, status groups, and occupational categories. i. In the Avesta. ii. In the Median and Achaemenid periods. iii. In the Parthian and Sasanian periods. iv. Classes in medieval Islamic Persia. v. Classes in the Qajar period. vi. Classes i…
Date: 2013-06-20

BARDESANES

(5,315 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
(Syr. Bar Dayṣān, Ar. Ebn Dayṣān), gnostic thinker (154-222) who occupies a position between the Syriac gnostic systems of the first two centuries A.D. and the Iranian gnostic system of Mani of the third century. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 7-8, pp. 780-785 BARDESANES (Syr. Bar Dayṣān, Ar. Ebn Dayṣān), gnostic thinker (154-222) who occupies a position between the Syriac gnostic systems of the first two centuries a.d. and the Iranian gnostic system of Mani of the third century. 1. Sources. Bardesanes’ own works are now known only through se…
Date: 2016-10-31

BUN-XĀNAG

(431 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
term in the inscriptions of Kirdīr at Naqš-e Rostam (KKZ and KNRm), variously interpreted. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 5, pp. 551 BUN-XĀNAG, phrase occurring in the sentence AYK-t bwny BYTA ZNE ʾyw YHWWN ( kū-t bun *xānag ēn ēw bawēd). In the inscriptions of Kirdīr at Naqš-e Rostam (KKZ and KNRm), for which W. B. Henning, in the introduction to his edition of inscription KNRm, proposed the translation “this foundation house shall be thine.” He argued that BYTA (the ideogram for xānag) must necessarily refer to the building on the walls of whic…
Date: 2013-05-06

BUDDHISM

(18,399 words)

Author(s): Ronald E. Emmerick | Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani | Ronald F. Emmerick | Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Boris A. Litvinsky
Among Iranian peoples. This series of articles covers Buddhism in Iran and Iranian lands: i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. InIslamic times. iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese. iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 5, pp. 492 BUDDHISM among Iranian peoples. BUDDHISM i. In Pre-Islamic Times Origin and early spread of Buddhism. Buddhism arose in northeast India in the sixth century b.c. as the result of the teaching of the historical Buddha Śākyamuni, who died about 4…
Date: 2016-12-09

ĀSRĒŠTĀR

(1,370 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
in Middle Persian Manichean texts a kind of demons, often associated with the mazans. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 801-802 ĀSRĒŠTĀR, in Middle Persian Manichean texts a kind of demons, often associated with the mazans. As a class they do not distinguish themselves, but two of their members play a crucial part in Manichean cosmogony as the creators of mankind, incorporating both the roles of creator demons (in this function partly identified with Āz “Greed,”), and seductor of the first human f…
Date: 2016-10-03

ARD YAŠT

(1,119 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
Middle Persian name of the Avestan hymn dedicated to Aši. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 4, pp. 355-356 ARD YAŠT, Middle Persian name of the Avestan hymn ( Yašt 17) dedicated to Aši (q.v.). Other forms of the name (see Avesta, ed. Geldner, II, p. 231) are Aršišvang Yašt and Aršasang or Aršašasang Yašt (with - s- for -uu- as not uncommonly in the mss. of the Avesta), all corruptions of Ašišvang Yašt from Av. Aši Vaŋᵛhī “the Good Aši” as she is commonly called (see Bartholomae, AirWb., cols. 241ff.). The textual transmission is based on one group of mss…
Date: 2013-03-05

HERZFELD, ERNST

(11,861 words)

Author(s): Stefan R. Hauser | David Stronach | Hubertus von Gall | Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Josef Wiesehöfer
Herzfeld is known as an archeologist, philologist, and polyhistor, one of the towering figures in ancient Near Eastern and Iranian studies during the first half of the 20th century. To him we owe many decisive contributions to Islamic, Sasanian, and Prehistoric archeology and history of Iran, Iraq, and Syria. He was the first professor for Near Eastern archeology in the world. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 3, pp. 290-302 HERZFELD, ERNST EMIL (1879-1948), archeologist, philologist, and polyhistor, one of the towering figures in anci…
Date: 2014-05-26

KAYĀNIĀN

(26,822 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
(Kayanids), in the early Persian epic tradition a dynasty that ruled Iran before the Achaemenids, all of whom bore names prefixed by Kay from Avestan kauui. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 148 KAYĀNIĀN (Kayanids), in the early Persian epic tradition a dynasty that ruled Iran before the Achaemenids, all of whom bore names prefixed by Kay from Avestan kauui (see below, i). They are preceded by the dynasty of the Pišdādiān (Pishdadids), which begins with Kayumarṯ (see GAYŌMART, HŌŠANG, JAMŠID). The Kayanids are included by all the early Musli…
Date: 2013-05-20

MARRIAGE ii. NEXT OF KIN MARRIAGE IN ZOROASTRIANISM

(23,419 words)

Author(s): Prods Oktor Skjærvø
xwēdōdah, said to refer to marital unions of father and daughter, mother and son, or brother and sister (next-of-kin or close-kin marriage, nuclear family incest). MARRIAGE ii. Next-Of -Kin Marriage In Zoroastrianism In Zoroastrian Middle Persian (Pahlavi) texts, the term xwēdōdah (Av. xᵛaētuuadaΘa) is said to refer to marital unions of father and daughter, mother and son, or brother and sister (next-of-kin or close-kin marriage, nuclear family incest), and to be one of the most pious actions possible. The models for these unions were f…
Date: 2017-12-01
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