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Missio canonica

(718 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] is a collective term for legal acts of the church, which are necessary because every action in the name of the church requires a canonical mandate: (1) mandates with functions in doctrine and proclamation; missio canonica in state church and concordat law, ( Nihil obstat , mandatum) for professors and teachers of religion; (2) canonical commission to an office, a service, or a function; (3) (liturgical or legal) mandate to celebrate and dispense sacraments (deacon: to read the gospel, by the celebrating priest; clergy or lait…

Bishopric

(633 words)

Author(s): Müller, Ludger | Puza, Richard
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law I. Church History Following the political order, the parish of the bishop developed, from the 4th century, on the model of the city; it was termed a “paroecia” until the 12th century. Innocent I was probably the first to call it, as it has been generally termed since the 13th century, a “diocese.” The English equivalent “bishopric” primarily expresses the constitutive role of the bishop in his bishopric. Ludger Müller Bibliography H.E. Feine, Kirchliche Rechtsgeschichte, 51972, 97–100, 104f. (bibl.). II. Church Law The terms bish…

Bishops' Conference

(339 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An episcopal or bishops' conference is a permanent institution in which the Roman Catholic bishops of a nation or of one particular region come together to exercise their pastoral ministry in common. Episcopal conferences were first introduced in some countries in the 19th century (Germany, 1848; Austria 1849). Vatican II and post-conciliar legislation developed the new form of gatherings of bishops in local churches which exists today (cc. 447–459 CIC/1983). The theological basis is the collegial structure of the episco…

Haring, Johann

(199 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 5, 1867, Wettmannsstetten, Austria – Dec 25, 1945) studied theology in Graz and was ordained a priest in 1891. Haring received the Dr.theol. from Graz in 1896, he became lecturer (1899/1900), associate professor (1900) and professor (1906–1937) of church law at the faculty of theology in Graz, and, after 1929, an official of the diocese of Graz-Seckau and consultant for Roman congregations. Haring was one of the most important Austrian canonists of his time. His scholarly attention was primarily devoted to the law in force, from 1917 to the CIC. His work, Der Rechts-…

Penitentiary, Apostolic

(285 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The Paenitentiaria Apostolica is one of the three highest courts of the Roman Curia ( Apostolic Constitutions, “Pastor Bonus,” arts. 117–120). It comprises the cardinal grand penitentiary, the regent, prelates, and officials. They are responsible for the sacramental (Confession) and non-sacramental forum internum, and for indulgences, absolutions, dispensations ( CIC/1983 cc. 1048, 1082), commutations, sanations, condonations, remission of punishment, and other acts of mercy, and supervision of the penitentiaries of the Roman pa…

Marriage

(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of social status to children (Child/Childhood) are part of the socially ¶ defined framework of marriage…

Dignity, Ecclesiastical

(215 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] Dignity refers to an office (formerly a benefice), the officeholder being the dignitary, and in a broader sense also an ecclesiastical dignity. The CIC/1917 uses the term in reference to cathedral and monastic chapters (cc. 393ff.). Those who hold dignities have administrative functions in chapters in the spheres of jurisdiction or liturgy, either externally (Temporalities, Church), such as the provost, or internally (spirituals), such as the dean. The CIC/1917 reserves the establishment (c. 394 §2) and conferment of dignit…

Vicar, Apostolic

(91 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] Literally a vicar apostolic is a representative of the Apostolic See. He is a prelate, possesses episcopal ordination, and is entrusted with a specific territory (the vicariate apostolic), which does not, however, have the canonical status of a diocese nor the autonomy of a diocese vis-à-vis Rome. It is a way the church is organized in mission territories. The vicar apostolic is the local ordinary and possesses potestas ordinaria vicaria. Richard Puza Bibliography G. Bier, in: Münsterischer Kommentar zum Codex iuris canonici, 1997, c. 371 (loose-leaf ed.).

Chancellor

(304 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] Catholic canon law (II, 1) requires that every diocesan curia appoints as one of its members a chancellor, also called curial secretary (in France often secretary general), who may be a member of the laity. The chancellor and possibly the vice-chancellor ¶ are also notaries and secretaries of the diocesan curia. The chancellor is freely appointed by the diocesan bishop and can also be removed from his office at the bishop's own discretion; he can also be removed by the diocesan administrator, but only…

Commandments of the Church

(351 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The commandments of the church are disciplinary precepts and ethical rules that are comparable to those of Judaism and Islam. The are promulgated by the church and originally also arose out of custom. They are subject to change. As statements of the teaching office of the church ( magisterium) intended for pastoral and catechetical use, they appear in catechisms (II) and canon law (II; CIC/¶ 1983, Particular law). Since the Middle Ages, the number of church commandments and their content have varied because of uneven regional …

Brief

(157 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The brief (breve) that is expedited through the (papal) state secretariat basically contains shorter texts of lesser importance than bullae, whereby only certain topics are deemed appropriate for bulls. The style is also more direct (fewer stipulations). Further differences exist with respect to the material (parchment) and the structuring of the content. The intitulatio begins with the name of the pope and continues with the servus servorum Dei and the inscriptio with the blessing of the addressee. There follows the stipulation ad perpetuam rei memoriam, then th…

Gasparri, Pietro

(282 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (May 5,1852, Ussita, Diocese of Norcia, Italy – Nov 18, 1934, Rome) was ordained a priest in 1875, held the Dr.phil.theol. and iur.can., was lecturer in canon law at Roman faculties, became professor of canon law at the Institut Catholique in Paris in 1880, titular bishop in 1898, was apostolic delegate to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, became secretary of the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and was consultant to several Roman congregations. Pius X commissioned him with the creation of the Codex Iuris Canonici . Appointed car…

Codex Iuris Canonici (1917)

(696 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The intention of restructuring canon law had existed ever since the preparatory work for Vatican I, although the popes of the time never followed up on it. Instead, several private outlines were drafted in which the methodic approach of the Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC) was anticipated. The definitive work began under Pius X ( Motu Proprio “Arduum sane munus,” Mar 19, 1904). The objective was to harmonize the hitherto fragmented laws concerning the larger and more important issues of church life. A commission was then set up a…

Freisen, Joseph

(212 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1893, Warstein, Westphalia – Feb 5, 1932, Würzburg) was ordained to the priesthood in 1878, earned the Dr.iur.utr. from Munich in 1881, the Dr.theol. from Tübingen in 1884, the Habilitation in canon law from the theological faculty of Freiburg in 1885, where he declined a position as assistant professor, became cooperator in Hoinkhausen (Westphalia) in 1885, and professor of canon law at Paderborn in 1892. In 1905, he resigned his professorship in Paderborn and gained his…

Consecrated Title

(261 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The consecrated title guarantees the support of clerics in higher orders (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication: I). In Old Church law, consecrated title relates to office and ministry, and the source of support. Consecrated titles were the titulus beneficii (sinecured office), patrimonii ([private] assets), pensionis (lifelong payments from assets) and mensae (title to the table, a third party's promise of support in emergencies), in the modern period, servitii dioecesis (service in the diocese) and missionis (in the area of the Propaganda fide). In the CIC/191…

Degradation

(207 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] In CIC/1917 degradation ( degradatio) still refers to the simultaneous deposition ( depositio), removal of clerical garb, and the transfer of a cleric into lay status. It was the harshest penalty for clerics (cc. 2292 no. 12, 2305 §1 CIC/1917), since the 12th century, involving dismissal from clerical status (X, 5, 20, 7; X, 5, 40, 27). In addition, as capitis deminutio (X, 5, 1, 24), it deprived the cleric of the privilegia clericorum and subjected him to the authority of the secular magistrate. The degradatio verbalis included judicial examination, the determinat…

Bishops, College of

(232 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The term “College of Bishops” refers to all the bishops in the Catholic Church in all¶ rites. One becomes a member of the Bishops' College through consecration as a bishop (Bishop, Consecration of) and the hierarchical community ( hierarchica communio) with its head and members. The apostolic body continues in the College of Bishops (c. 336). Like the pope, it bears supreme and full authority in reference to the entire church. As bishop of Rome, the pope is also a member of the College of Bishops and, according to c. 331 CIC/1983, is its head. The …

Codex Iuris Canonici (1983)

(498 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An aggiornamento of canon law had already been announced by John XXIII, as Vatican II had made the Codex of 1917 appear outdated. On Jan 28, 1963, a reform commission was established (commission of cardinals with consultors). The churchgoing public was widely integrated in the making of the new Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC). Some drafts were withdrawn. John Paul II canonized and promulgated the CIC on Jan 25, 1983. It came into effect on Nov 27, 1983. The Codex itself is written in Latin, though authorized translations into several languages followed. The CIC applies…

Dietary Laws

(4,404 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Willi-Plein, Ina | Ebner, Martin | Puza, Richard | Reichman, Ronen | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Christianity – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Indian Religions I. Religious Studies A human society's dietary laws and prohibitions give us an excellent insight into its symbolic and ritual practices. The choice of nourishment (preferences and prohibitions) is closely tied to the overall image that a culture develops of itself, with whic…

Primate

(498 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] ( primatus) is used in the Catholic Church in two senses: (1) in the constitutional law of the Latin church, not as a distinct constitutional authority but as the title of a diocesan bishop (above a bishop) linked with specified episcopal sees ( CIC/1983 c. 438). (2) In the law governing religious orders, there is an abbot primate under the general of a monastic congregation ( CIC/1983 c. 620). 1. Primate, like patriarch, is an honorary title of diocesan bishops in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church; in the Eastern Church they are called exarchs.…
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