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Weihetitel

(192 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[English Version] . Der W. garantiert den Unterhalt des Klerikers höherer Weihen (: I.). Im altkirchl. Kirchenrecht bez. W. Amt und Dienststelle, auch die Quelle des Unterhaltes. W. waren der titulus beneficii (bepfründeten Amtes), patrimonii ([Privat-]Vermögen), pensionis (lebenslängliche Bezüge aus Vermögen) und mensae (Tischtitel, Unterhaltsversprechen eines Dritten für den Notfall), seit der Neuzeit servitii dioecesis (Dienst in der Diöz.) und missionis (Bereich Propaganda fide). Im CIC/1917 i…

Freisen, Joseph

(212 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1893, Warstein, Westphalia – Feb 5, 1932, Würzburg) was ordained to the priesthood in 1878, earned the Dr.iur.utr. from Munich in 1881, the Dr.theol. from Tübingen in 1884, the Habilitation in canon law from the theological faculty of Freiburg in 1885, where he declined a position as assistant professor, became cooperator in Hoinkhausen (Westphalia) in 1885, and professor of canon law at Paderborn in 1892. In 1905, he resigned his professorship in Paderborn and gained his…

Consecrated Title

(261 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The consecrated title guarantees the support of clerics in higher orders (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication: I). In Old Church law, consecrated title relates to office and ministry, and the source of support. Consecrated titles were the titulus beneficii (sinecured office), patrimonii ([private] assets), pensionis (lifelong payments from assets) and mensae (title to the table, a third party's promise of support in emergencies), in the modern period, servitii dioecesis (service in the diocese) and missionis (in the area of the Propaganda fide). In the CIC/191…

Degradation

(207 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] In CIC/1917 degradation ( degradatio) still refers to the simultaneous deposition ( depositio), removal of clerical garb, and the transfer of a cleric into lay status. It was the harshest penalty for clerics (cc. 2292 no. 12, 2305 §1 CIC/1917), since the 12th century, involving dismissal from clerical status (X, 5, 20, 7; X, 5, 40, 27). In addition, as capitis deminutio (X, 5, 1, 24), it deprived the cleric of the privilegia clericorum and subjected him to the authority of the secular magistrate. The degradatio verbalis included judicial examination, the determinat…

Bishops, College of

(232 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The term “College of Bishops” refers to all the bishops in the Catholic Church in all¶ rites. One becomes a member of the Bishops' College through consecration as a bishop (Bishop, Consecration of) and the hierarchical community ( hierarchica communio) with its head and members. The apostolic body continues in the College of Bishops (c. 336). Like the pope, it bears supreme and full authority in reference to the entire church. As bishop of Rome, the pope is also a member of the College of Bishops and, according to c. 331 CIC/1983, is its head. The …

Codex Iuris Canonici (1983)

(498 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An aggiornamento of canon law had already been announced by John XXIII, as Vatican II had made the Codex of 1917 appear outdated. On Jan 28, 1963, a reform commission was established (commission of cardinals with consultors). The churchgoing public was widely integrated in the making of the new Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC). Some drafts were withdrawn. John Paul II canonized and promulgated the CIC on Jan 25, 1983. It came into effect on Nov 27, 1983. The Codex itself is written in Latin, though authorized translations into several languages followed. The CIC applies…

Primate

(498 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] ( primatus) is used in the Catholic Church in two senses: (1) in the constitutional law of the Latin church, not as a distinct constitutional authority but as the title of a diocesan bishop (above a bishop) linked with specified episcopal sees ( CIC/1983 c. 438). (2) In the law governing religious orders, there is an abbot primate under the general of a monastic congregation ( CIC/1983 c. 620). 1. Primate, like patriarch, is an honorary title of diocesan bishops in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church; in the Eastern Church they are called exarchs.…

Chancellor

(304 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] Catholic canon law (II, 1) requires that every diocesan curia appoints as one of its members a chancellor, also called curial secretary (in France often secretary general), who may be a member of the laity. The chancellor and possibly the vice-chancellor ¶ are also notaries and secretaries of the diocesan curia. The chancellor is freely appointed by the diocesan bishop and can also be removed from his office at the bishop's own discretion; he can also be removed by the diocesan administrator, but only…

Commandments of the Church

(351 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The commandments of the church are disciplinary precepts and ethical rules that are comparable to those of Judaism and Islam. The are promulgated by the church and originally also arose out of custom. They are subject to change. As statements of the teaching office of the church ( magisterium) intended for pastoral and catechetical use, they appear in catechisms (II) and canon law (II; CIC/¶ 1983, Particular law). Since the Middle Ages, the number of church commandments and their content have varied because of uneven regional …

Brief

(157 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The brief (breve) that is expedited through the (papal) state secretariat basically contains shorter texts of lesser importance than bullae, whereby only certain topics are deemed appropriate for bulls. The style is also more direct (fewer stipulations). Further differences exist with respect to the material (parchment) and the structuring of the content. The intitulatio begins with the name of the pope and continues with the servus servorum Dei and the inscriptio with the blessing of the addressee. There follows the stipulation ad perpetuam rei memoriam, then th…

Gasparri, Pietro

(282 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] (May 5,1852, Ussita, Diocese of Norcia, Italy – Nov 18, 1934, Rome) was ordained a priest in 1875, held the Dr.phil.theol. and iur.can., was lecturer in canon law at Roman faculties, became professor of canon law at the Institut Catholique in Paris in 1880, titular bishop in 1898, was apostolic delegate to Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, became secretary of the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and was consultant to several Roman congregations. Pius X commissioned him with the creation of the Codex Iuris Canonici . Appointed car…

Codex Iuris Canonici (1917)

(696 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The intention of restructuring canon law had existed ever since the preparatory work for Vatican I, although the popes of the time never followed up on it. Instead, several private outlines were drafted in which the methodic approach of the Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC) was anticipated. The definitive work began under Pius X ( Motu Proprio “Arduum sane munus,” Mar 19, 1904). The objective was to harmonize the hitherto fragmented laws concerning the larger and more important issues of church life. A commission was then set up a…

Bishopric

(633 words)

Author(s): Müller, Ludger | Puza, Richard
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law I. Church History Following the political order, the parish of the bishop developed, from the 4th century, on the model of the city; it was termed a “paroecia” until the 12th century. Innocent I was probably the first to call it, as it has been generally termed since the 13th century, a “diocese.” The English equivalent “bishopric” primarily expresses the constitutive role of the bishop in his bishopric. Ludger Müller Bibliography H.E. Feine, Kirchliche Rechtsgeschichte, 51972, 97–100, 104f. (bibl.). II. Church Law The terms bish…

Celibacy of the Clergy

(1,541 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Lüdecke, Norbert | Puza, Richard
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. In the Christian Church – III.  Ethics I. History of Religions Celibacy, from Latin caelebs, “living alone,” refers to the unmarried state with the accent on sexual abstinence as practiced by a specific social group, while chastity represents a comprehensive form of abstinence going beyond the sexual. Celibacy is practiced for cultic reasons (purity [Pure and impure], defense against demons), societal needs (vestals; the preservation of ass…

Zölibat

(1,577 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Lüdecke, Norbert | Puza, Richard
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Z., von lat. caelebs, »alleinlebend«, bez. Ehelosigkeit mit dem Akzent auf sexueller Enthaltsamkeit, die von einer bestimmten sozialen Gruppe praktiziert wird, während Keuschheit eine über das Sexuelle hinausgehende umfassende Form der Enthaltung darstellt. Z. erfolgt aus kultischen Gründen (Reinheit [rein und unrein], Dämonenabwehr), zum gesellschaftlichen Nutzen (Vestalinnen; Vermögenssicherung im Frühchristentum) oder aus Ablehnung alles Materiellen (d…

Council

(4,467 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Schneider, Hans | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Puza, Richard | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law – III. Dogmatics I. Church History 1. Early Church Council (Lat. concilium, Gk σύνοδος [Lat. synodum]; the two terms were first differentiated in modern usage; see also synod) are meetings of bishops from various communities for binding clarification of disciplinary, organizational, or doctrinal questions, whose decisions, as inspired by the Holy Spirit, are not in principle revisable and claim validity for the whole church r…

Canon Law/Church Law

(11,049 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Kalb, Herbert | Puza, Richard | Pirson, Dietrich | Engelhardt, Hanns | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. The Present – III. Orthodox Church – IV. The Study of Canon Law and Church Law – V. Practical Theology – VI. Oriental Orthodox Canon Law I. History 1. Early Church. The church has had laws ever since Christians recognized the need for a generally recognized authority to regulate the uncertainties, problems, and controversies involving church discipline brought about by the rapid expansion of Christianity. After the death of the initial authority figures (e.g. the fou…

Speisegebote/Speiseverbote/Speisegesetze

(3,798 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Willi-Plein, Ina | Ebner, Martin | Puza, Richard | Reichman, Ronen | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichAnhand der Speisegebote (S.) und -verbote einer menschlichen Gemeinschaft läßt sich der Zusammenhang zw. symbolischen und rituellen Handlungen ablesen. Die Wahl der Nahrung (Vorlieben und Verbote) ist eng verbunden mit dem Gesamtbild, das eine Kultur von sich entwirft und mit dem sie anderen Kulturen gegenübertritt und das seinerseits ein spezifisches Verhältnis zur Natur und Transzendenz voraussetzt. Die S. haben somit identitätsstiftende Funktion; si…

Dietary Laws

(4,404 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Willi-Plein, Ina | Ebner, Martin | Puza, Richard | Reichman, Ronen | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Christianity – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Buddhism – VIII. Indian Religions I. Religious Studies A human society's dietary laws and prohibitions give us an excellent insight into its symbolic and ritual practices. The choice of nourishment (preferences and prohibitions) is closely tied to the overall image that a culture develops of itself, with whic…

Marriage

(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of social status to children (Child/Childhood) are part of the socially ¶ defined framework of marriage…
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