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Māʾ

(32,728 words)

Author(s): Fahd, F. | Young, M. J. L. | Hill, D. R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) «eau». Le présent article traitera des aspects magico-religieux et juridique de l’eau, ainsi que des techniques d’irrigation: I. Hydromancie. II. L’eau dans le droit islamique classique. III. Machines hydrauliques. IV. L’irrigation en Egypte avant le XXe siècle. V. L’irrigation en Mésopotamie. VI. L’irrigation en Perse. VII. L’irrigation en Afrique du Nord et en Espagne. VIII. L’irrigation dans l’empire ottoman. IX. L’irrigation dans l’Inde musulmane avant le XXe siècle. X. Aspects économiques de l’irrigation moderne. XI. Emplois décoratifs de l’eau dans l’Inde mu…

Ḳalāwūn

(2,295 words)

Author(s): Rabie, Hassanein
, al-Malik al-Manṣūr Sayf al-dīn Ḳalāwūn al-Alfī al-Ṣāliḥī al-Nad̲j̲mī al-ʿAlāʾī, cinquième sultan mamluk, souverain d’Égypte et de Syrie de 678 à 689/1279-90. Il fut parmi les plus grands souverains du sultanat des Mamlūks baḥrites [ q.v.] et il pratiqua la même politique que le sultan Baybars Ier [ q.v.] en particulier dans ses campagnes contre les Mongols et les Croisés. Il naquit dans le pays des Turcs ḳipčaḳ sur le littoral septentrional de la mer Noire, mais on ne connaît pas la date de sa naissance, et les sources ne font aucune mention de son enf…

Māʾ

(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…

Ḳalāwūn

(2,248 words)

Author(s): Rabie, Hassanein
, al-Malik al-Manṣūr Sayf al-Dīn Ḳalāwūn al-Alfī al-Ṣāliḥī al-Nad̲j̲mī al-ʿAlāʾī , the fifth Mamūlk sultan, ruler of Egypt and Syria from 678/1279 to 689/1290. One of the most eminent sultans of the Baḥrī [ q.v.] Mamlūk sultanate, he followed the policies of Sultan Baybars I [ q.v.] especially in his campaigns against the Mongols and the Crusaders. Ḳalāwūn was born in the country of the Kipčak Turks on the northern shores of the Black Sea. The date of his birth is unknown and the sources tell us nothing about his childhood. A sla…