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Kindergarten

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Radtke, Muriel M.
Kindergarten is an educational program, either all-day or half-day, for the year preceding entrance into the first grade in public schools. The kindergarten experience is part of early Childhood education, which encompasses educational experiences from birth through age eight. 1. History 1.1. Roots Early childhood education in the 21st century can trace its roots to several early thinkers. Martin Luther (1483–1546) advanced the then radical idea that all boys should be educated and that music and physical education should be part of that…

Moral Education

(1,421 words)

Author(s): Radtke, Muriel M.
1. Definition Moral education is what schools do, consciously and unconsciously, to help the young think about issues of right and wrong, to help them desire the social good, and to help them behave ethically (K. Ryan, 3406). “Character education” and “values education” are terms often used synonymously with “moral education.” Although all social institutions bear some burden for instruction in morality, the public expects schools to play a central role in the development of character. In the United States only a few states, however, have educat…

Education

(5,155 words)

Author(s): Groothoff, Hans-Hermann | Krenzer, Richard P. | Radtke, Muriel M. | Zeil-Fahlbusch, Elisabeth
1. Europe 1.1. Definition The popular term “education”—as also, from the 18th century, “culture”—defies comprehensive definition. It receives its concrete sense from the context in which it is used. Historically it derives from educatio, and there is a relation also to eruditio. It thus has an underlying sense that becomes clear when we relate it to other cultures. As a “function of society” (W. Dilthey), education cannot be abstracted from social development and treated in isolation. Thus in libera…