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Parwīn Iʿtiṣāmī

(847 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, celebrated female poet of Iran, was born on 16 March 1907 in Tabrīz. Her father, Yūsuf Iʿtiṣāmī (d. 2 January 1938), was a respected author known chiefly for his translations of French and Arabic works into Persian. He was also the founder and principal writer of the literary magazine Bahār , which appeared from April 1910 till November 1911 and again from April 1921 till December 1922. Parwīn received her early instruction in Persian and Arabic literature from her father. When she was still small, her father moved the fa…


(823 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Indo-Muslim Persian poet, Muḥammad Ḥusayn, who flourished during the 10th/16th and early 11th/17th centuries, d. 1021/1612-13. He belonged originally to Nīs̲h̲āpūr, from where he went to Kās̲h̲ān during his youth. There he participated in poetical contests with the leading local poets of the day. He was among the first Persian poets who migrated from their native land ¶ during the Ṣafawid period to seek their fortune at the Mug̲h̲al court. On his arrival in India ( ca. 993/1585-6), he attached himself to ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān [see k̲h̲ān k̲h̲ānān …


(488 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Muḥammad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān , prominent Persian poet of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period. He was born around 1228/1813 in Sidih, a district of Iṣfahān. His ancestors were artisans and farmers, and his father was reportedly a butcher by trade (see Dīwān , i, introd., 2). About 1243/1827 Surūs̲h̲ moved to Iṣfahān after his father’s death. There he completed his education and also discovered his poetic vocation. In 1247/1831 he left Iṣfahān to find suitable patronage, ¶ and travelled to various cities. Finally, he settled down in Tabrīz, where he gained access to the heir-apparent, Nāṣir …


(609 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Abū Naṣr Fatḥ Allāh K̲h̲ān , 19th century Persian poet, born around 1241/1825 in Kās̲h̲ān, died 20 Rad̲j̲ab 1308/1 March 1891. He came from a noble family claiming descent from the S̲h̲aybānī tribe, from which he took his pen name. His grandfather held the governorship of Naṭanz, Kās̲h̲ān, D̲j̲aws̲h̲aḳān and Ḳum during Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān’s reign (1193-1212/1779-97), whilst his father, Muḥammad Kāẓim K̲h̲ān, was employed under Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (r. 1250-64/1779-97) and later served as financial agent of the govern…

Tug̲h̲rā, Mullā

(477 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, 17th-century Indo-Persian poet, died ca. 1078/1667 (see Rieu, Catalogue of Persian manuscripts in the British Museum , ii, Add. 16,852). According to most accounts, he was a native of Mas̲h̲had, but Ṭāhir Naṣrābādī, who was his contemporary, mentions him as a Tabrīzī, stating at the same time that he heard the poet being called Mas̲h̲hadī ( Tad̲h̲kira-yi Naṣrābādī , ed. Waḥīd Dastgirdī, Tehran 1361/1982, 339). Tug̲h̲rā went” to India towards the end of D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign or in the beginning of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s time. His first e…

Malik Ḳummi

(638 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indo-Muslim poet, was born at Ḳum in about 934/1528. The author of the Mayk̲h̲āna states that his full name was Malik Muḥammad. He went at an early age to Kās̲h̲ān, where he stayed nearly twenty years, and then spent approximately four years in Ḳazwīn, frequenting the company of writers and scholars in both places. Already during his youth he seems to have won distinction for himself in poetical competitions with his contemporaries, and was regarded highly by such literary figures as Muḥtas̲h̲am of Kās̲h̲ān (d. 996/1587-8) and Ḍamīrī of Iṣfahān (d. ca. 1578) for his innovative tenden…


(616 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(a.) a classical verse form employed in Persian and kindred literatures, principally Turkish and Urdu. Its literal meaning is “additional”, and the term has sometimes been translated in English as “increment poem” (cf. E.G. Browne, A literary history of Persia, ii, 41). In its most common form, it is a poem based upon the pattern of the g̲h̲azal or the rubāʿi in which each hemistich is followed by a short metrical line. This short line is metrically related to the principal hemistich, and usually comprises the first and last feet to…

S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Mūsā Nat̲h̲rī

(468 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Persian writer dealing in historical novels. The details concerning ¶ his life are at the best sketchy. By profession, he was involved in educational activities, serving as principal of the government college Nuṣrat in Hamadān and as Director of Education in Kirmāns̲h̲āhān (for his latter designation, see Armag̲h̲ān [March-April 1930], 73). He edited the periodical Ittiḥād which was published from Hamadān in 1293/1914 (Ṣadr Hās̲h̲imī, Tārīk̲h̲-i d̲j̲arāyid u mad̲j̲allāt-i Īrān , i, Iṣfahān 1343/1964-5, 46). An article from him, entitled S̲h̲āʿir kīst


(382 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Persian poet ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, who was born ca. 945/1538 in Buk̲h̲ārā. His ancestors came from Marw, which is probably why he sometimes refers to himself as Marwī. According to Saʿīd Nafīsī, he received a religious education during his youth, but went on to choose the poetical vocation, in which he was the disciple of Mawlānā Ḥasan Kawkabī, a well-known poet of Buk̲h̲ārā ( flor . end of the 9th-beginning of the 10th/15th-16th centuries). In 972/1564-5 Mus̲h̲fiḳī went to Samarḳand, where he subsequently worked as ¶ librarian for the S̲h̲aybānid ruler Sultan Saʿīd …


(1,180 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, mirzā muḥammad hādī , Urdu novelist, poet, translator and writer on scientific, philosophical and religious subjects. He was born in Lucknow most probably in 1858. His ancestors had migrated from Persia during the Mug̲h̲al period. His great-grandfather, Mīrzā D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār ʿAlī Beg, took up permanent residence in Awadh [ q.v.] during Āṣaf al-Dawla’s time (1775-97), and became ad̲j̲utant in the Nawāb’s army. Ruswā received his early education from his father, Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad Taḳī, who taught him Arabic, Persian and mathematics. For learning E…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(588 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad , Persian poet, court historian, epistle writer and state dignitary, born during the beginning of the 11th/17th century, and died most probably in 1110/1698-9. He was born at Ḳazwīn into a family whose members had served in the state chancery. His father, Mīrzā Ḥusayn K̲h̲ān, was a prominent citizen of Ḳazwīn. Ṭāhir Waḥīd learned the traditional subjects taught during his time, and acquired a good training in accountancy and secretarial work. He served as secretary to two successive prime ministers, Mīrzā…

Munīr Lāhawrī

(436 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(1019-54/1610-44), the pen name of Abu ’l-Barakāt, a prominent Indo-Muslim poet of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s period (1628-58). He was born on 12 Ramaḍān 1019/28 November 1610 at Lāhawr. His father, ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl b. Ḥāfiẓ Abū Isḥāḳ, was an expert calligraphier attached to Emperor Akbar’s court. Munīr received his education in Lāhawr, and started composing poetry at an early age. In 1045/1635-6 he took up service with Mīrzā Ṣafī Sayf K̲h̲ān, who was a son-in-law of Āṣaf K̲h̲ān (d. 1051/1641), father of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s wife, Mumtāz Maḥall [ q.v.]. Sayf K̲h̲ān held important administrat…


(875 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(a.), “poetical contest”, in Urdu usually pronounced mus̲h̲āʿira , has come to be applied in its wider aspect to denote an assembly where Urdu poets come together to recite their compositions. Its origin in the Indo-Muslim cultural tradition can only be guessed. According to a statement by S̲h̲iblī Nuʿmānī, one may assume that the institution of the mus̲h̲āʿara must have appeared on the Persian literary scene in India by the beginning of the 10th/16th century. S̲h̲iblī points out that from the time of the poet Fig̲h̲ānī [ q.v.], who died in 925/1519, there grew up the custom of holding mus̲h̲…


(1,104 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān , Persian poet, was born in Kās̲h̲ān, probably in 1179/1765, and died in 1238/1822-3. His people belonged originally to Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. and came from the Dunbalī stock, a tribe of Kurds settled in the region of Ḵh̲ūy. Members of his family held jobs as governors and administrators under the Zand and Ḳād̲j̲ār rulers. His father, Āḳā Muḥammad, was governor of Kās̲h̲ān under the Zands, and his eldest brother, Muḥammad ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was minister to the Zand ruler Luṭf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān ( r. 1203-9/1789-94). Ṣabā also seems to have been identified with this monarch, and i…


(304 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the most important song form in the classical repertoire of north Indian music, is regarded by some to have been invented by Amīr K̲h̲usraw (651-725/1253-1325) and attributed by others to Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh S̲h̲arḳī (862-934/1458-1528), the ruler of Ḏj̲awnpūr. who was dispossessed by Buhlūl Lodī in ca. 1476. Whatever its genesis, there is little doubt that it saw its greatest development during the Muslim period of Indian history and that its major exponents have generally been Muslims. It arose as a reaction to the traditional composition dhrupad , whose rigid …

Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī

(582 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Persian poet and scholar, born on 4 December 1896 at Kirmāns̲h̲āh and died in 1951. His real name was G̲h̲ulām Riḍā, but he is popularly known as Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī in literary and intellectual circles. He came from a cultured and well-educated family, which counted as one of its respected members the author of the novel S̲h̲ams u ṭug̲h̲rā , namely Muḥammad Bāḳir Mīrzā K̲h̲usrawī (1849-1950), who was his maternal uncle. After completing his early education in his native town, Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī proceeded to Tehran in 1333/1914-15…

Salīm, Muḥammad Ḳulī

(769 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, an Indo-Persian poet of the 11th/17th century, died 1057/1647-8. He originated from the S̲h̲āmlū tribe of the Turks and was a native of Tehran, but details regarding his life are scanty. In Persia he served under Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh Ḵh̲ān, governor of Lāhīd̲j̲ān [ q.v.] in Gīlān. During this time he married and had a son. Among the eminent personalities to whom he addressed his poems in the beginning were the Ṣafawid rulers S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (r. 996-1038/1588-1629) and his successor S̲h̲āh Ṣafī I (r. 1038-52/1629-42). Perhaps his failure to f…


(551 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
( Talibov ), ʿAbd al-Raḥīm , Persian writer and intellectual of the 19th century (b. Tabrīz 1250/1834, d. 1329/1911). At ca. sixteen, he left for Tiflis (Tbilisi) in Transcaucasia, where he learned the Russian language and was exposed to the writings of Russian writers as well as to Western political ideas. Subsequently, he settled in Tamir K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ūra (present-day Buynaksk), capital of Dāg̲h̲istān. In ca. 1306/1888 he joined Sayyid Muḥammad S̲h̲abistarī (afterwards editor of Īrān-i naw ) ¶ in starting in Istanbul the paper S̲h̲āhsawan , of which only on…

K̲h̲alīfa S̲h̲āh Muḥammad

(198 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indian Muslim scholar who flourished during the latter part of the 11th/17th and early part of the 12th/18th century. He was the author of an epistolary work in Persian entitled Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-ḳawānīn , also known as Ins̲h̲āʾ-yi K̲h̲alīfa . According to G̲h̲ulām ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Āzād Bilgrāmī, S̲h̲āh Muḥammad’s book was much used in schools, and he spent some time in Bilgrām studying under two local scholars, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr and Sayyid K̲h̲ayr Allāh (d. 1115/1703). The Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-ḳawānīn is divided into four sections: the first two contain long and short letters resp…


(493 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(late 9th century-988/late 15th century-1580), the tak̲h̲alluṣ [ q.v.] or pen-name of an Indo-Muslim poet, Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad, who wrote at the courts of the Mug̲h̲al emperors Humāyūn and Akbar [ q.vv.]. According to most writers he was born in Transoxania at Miyānkāl, a district situated between Samarḳand and Buk̲h̲ārā, but stayed a long time in Kābul, whence he is also known as Kābulī. When fifteen years old he is said to have visited D̲j̲āmī (d. 898/1492 [ q.v.]) at Harāt, and spent some seven years in the poet’s company. Subsequently he went to India o…
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