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## Quantification and measurement

(2,130 words)

1. Concept Quantification means the apprehension of a defined item in numerical terms. Combined with the indication of a unit of measurement or a scale, the quantification of an item provides the conditions for its measurement. Even in the ancient world, quantification was already central to many aspects of everyday life (lengths, time, weights and measures), crafts and trades, and technology (see also Metrology). The subject under discussion here, however, is quantification and measure…
Date: 2021-03-15

## Calculus of variations

(964 words)

1. Origins The core of the calculus of variations in its simplest form lies in finding a function that maximizes or minimizes a fixed definite integral.. The term calculus of variations was proposed in the 18th century by Leonhard Euler, following Joseph Louis de Lagrange, and refers to the procedure of using extremal conditions to identify the function in question in such a way that the value of the integral changes only minimally with small variations in the function. As a …
Date: 2019-10-14

## Force

(3,056 words)

1. Physics 1.1. Concepts Physicists today define a force as a physical value that will change the motion of a body. Originally, among the ideas to become associated with the concept of force was that of muscular tension. The concept had a wide spectrum of meaning in early modern scholarly discourse. There was no clear distinction between force in its essential sense of the stimulus to a movement and force in the wider sense of the stimulus to general changes in an object [1]; [3]; [12]. Krünitz' Ökonomische Encyklopädie, for instance, sees the physical force behind movement as sim…
Date: 2019-10-14