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Story Bible

(301 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] A story Bible or historiated Bible (Ger. Historienbibel ) is a prose work of the 14th century or 15th century, often illustrated (Bible illustrations), reproducing the narrative material of the Bible in the vernacular and usually incorporating apocryphal texts and accounts from secular history. Formal analogies have repeatedly led scholars to postulate the influence of the Jewish Haggadah and Christian historiography (Eusebius of Caesarea, Jerome, Isidore of Seville). A major source of many story Bibles was the Historia scholastica of Peter Comestor, which…

Hildesheim

(432 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Hiltwineshem), a city and one of the largest German bishoprics, which covers an area of approx. 30,000 km2 and includes large portions of Lower Saxony, Bremen, and Bremerhaven. In 1999, 12.3 % of the population were Catholics. According to the legend of the fundatio ecclesiae Hildensemensis, ¶ which was refuted by G.W. Leibniz, Hildesheim was founded by Louis I, the Pious on the site of a rose tree which can still be seen today. In reality, the site was probably chosen because it lay at an important military crossroads. Bisho…

Ratzeburg

(314 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Racesburg), an island town in Schleswig-Holstein, until 1545/1648 a bishopric; at the beginning of the 21st century, it had c. 13,000 inhabitants. From 1050 there stood opposite the Slav castle of Prince Ratibor (known as Race) a monastery under the Benedictine abbot Ansverus. The bishopric was founded after 1062 by Adalbert of Bremen, in the course of the Christianization of the Slavs. In the Slav revolt of 1066 the bishopric and monastery were destroyed, and Ansverus and his mo…

Grabow, Matthaeus

(173 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (d. after 1421), a Dominican friar, was inquisitor in Groningen and Wismar. Grabow dismissed all life spent outside the established monastic communities as without merit and not according to the gospel. He thus opposed the Third Orders which are not integrated into a monastic organization (and which he sharply condemned), but also the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life and the Dutch Beguines. The Brothers, however, filed a complaint with the bishop of Utrecht, who, on the bas…

Surius, Laurentius

(171 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Lorenz Sauer; 1523, Lübeck – May 28, 1578, Cologne) first came in contact with the Reformation while studying in Frankfurt an der Oder, thanks to his interest in Humanism and proficiency in ancient languages. But his friendship with P. Canisius after 1537 led to a fascination with Reform Catholicism, which combined his interests in the Reformation, Humanism, and the Early Church. In 1540 he joined the Carthusians in Cologne; in 1543 he was ordained to the priesthood. Efforts towa…

Grapheus, Cornelius

(94 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (De Schrijver, Scribonius; 1482, Aalst, Belgium – Dec 19, 1558, Antwerp), as a humanist, was a very early advocate of the Reformation in the Netherlands. Grapheus published the Epistula apologetica of Johannes Pupper in 1521 as well as his chief work, De libertate Christiana. He provided both works with polemical forewords, which prompted his arrest in 1523, the loss of his office as secretary of the city of Antwerp, and the public retraction and burning of his writings. Christian Willm Rasch Bibliography J.A. Templin, “Cornelius Grapheus,” IliffRev 36, 1979, 3–19.

Mikkelsen, Hans

(216 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Malmö – Dec 20, 1532, Harderwijk, the Netherlands), political adviser to Christian II of Denmark, a political exile in Electoral Saxony, participated in translating the New Testament into Danish. Although its awkward style kept it from gaining acceptance, this was the first translation into a vernacular language produced by the Reformation outside Germany (Bible translations: II, 1.c). Influenced by Erasmian Humanism (Erasmus), as mayor of Malmö (1507–1523), Mikkelsen supported t…

Minden

(285 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Minda), Hansa town and former prince-bishopric, with an estimated population of 83,000 (2003). The bishopric embraced the territory of Minden and Lübbecke. The town, situated on the Weser, is mentioned in 798 in the so-called Royal Frankish Annals. Excavations indicate a settlement going back to the 3rd century. The first bishop was Erkanbert. The original Romanesque cathedral of St. Peter and St. Gorgonius was completed in the 13th century. There Henry the Lion married Matilda o…

Micron (Micronius), Marten

(243 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (Martinus Micronius, de Cleyne; 1523, Ghent – Sep 12, 1559, Norden, East Frisia), champion of Reformed congregations fleeing persecution. Banished from his homeland, he briefly studied medicine at Basel, then went to Zürich to study theology. There he became a student of H. Bullinger, with whom he stayed in touch throughout his life. In Bullinger's home, he came into contact with the Anglican theologian J. Hooper, who in 1549 succeeded in having him appointed pastor to the Dutch refugee congregation in London. His works during this period include his Cleyne Catechismu…

Kettenbach, Heinrich von

(168 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (died c. 1524), was a Franciscan friar from Ulm and an author of pamphlets in the milieu of F. v. Sickingen. The circumstances of Kettenbach's birth and death are unknown, and his noble lineage cannot be verified. His literary activities are limited to the years 1522 to c. 1525 and can be divided into three stages. After entering the monastery (probably in 1521), Kettenbach began delivering virulent sermons against the lax attitude of the clergy and against Roman ecclesiology, cal…

Westphalia

(1,848 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] Westphalia, territory of the Germanic tribe of Westphalians, the western part of the area settled by the Saxons. Former duchy, Napoleonic vassal kingdom, and Prussian province (Prussia). Currently the northeastern part of the German federal state of Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia) as well as a Protestant regional church (Evangelical Church in Westphalia). From north to south, Westphalia encompasses the regions of East Westphalia, Münsterland, the eastern part of the Ruhr area, Sauerland, and Siegen-Wittgenstein. The d…

Fisher, John

(172 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] (1469, Beverly, England – Jun 22, 1535, London), theologian and humanist. In 1497, during studies in Cambridge, he became the father confessor of the mother of Henry VIII. After attaining the degree of Dr.theol. in 1501, he taught from 1503 and in 1504 became chancellor of the university for life and bishop of Rochester. Between 1511 and 1514, he brought Erasmus to Cambridge and introduced the study of Greek and Hebrew around 1516. Although Fisher supported his humanistically educ…

Surius

(150 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[English Version] Surius, Laurentius (Lorenz Sauer; 1523 Lübeck – 28.5.1578 Köln) kam während des Studiums in Frankfurt/Oder aufgrund seines humanistischen Interesses und großer altsprachlicher Fertigkeiten zunächst in Kontakt zur Reformation. Durch die Freundschaft mit P. Canisius jedoch erlebte S. seit 1537 einen ihn faszinierenden Reformkatholizismus. Hier trafen für ihn reformatorische, humanistische und altkirchl. Anliegen zusammen. 1540 wurde S. in Köln Kartäuser, 1543 Priester. Das Bestreben…

Ratzeburg

(267 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[English Version] (Racesburg), Inselstadt in Schleswig-Holstein und bis 1545/1648 Bistum; derzeit (2003) ca.13 000 Einwohner. Seit 1050 bestand gegenüber der slaw. Burg des Fürsten Ratibor (genannt Race) ein Kloster unter dem Benediktiner-Abt Ansverus. Das Bistum wurde im Zuge der Christianisierung der Slawen von Adalbert von Bremen nach 1062 gegründet. Im Slawenaufstand von 1066 wurden Bistum und Kloster zerstört, Ansverus und seine Mönche gesteinigt. Erst 1154 konnte das Bistum unter Heinrich de…

Paderborn

(477 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[English Version] Paderborn, Stadt im Paderquellgebiet und seit 1930 Erzbistum. Z.Z. 138 830 Einwohner (Juni 2002). Die Kirchenprovinz umfaßt seit 1994 (Abtretung Hildesheims an Hamburg) die Diözesen Erfurt, Fulda und Magdeburg. Eine erste urkundliche Erwähnung als Pfalz erfolgte i.J. 777 im Zuge der fränkischen Reichsversammlung Karls des Großen. Auf dem Treffen Karls mit Papst Leo III. in P. 799 kam es zur Absprache der Kaiserkrönung sowie zur Gründung des zunächst der Kirchenprovinz Mainz zugeh…

Bible Translations

(16,696 words)

Author(s): Dogniez, Cécile | Schulz-Flügel, Eva | Juckel, Andreas | Veltri, Giuseppe | Griffith, Sydney H. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Translations into Ancient Languages – II. Christian Translations into European Languages since the Middle Ages– III. Translations into Non-European Languages in Modern Times I. Translations into Ancient Languages 1. Translations of the Old Testament into Greek a. The first written translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint (LXX), owes its name to the circumstance that the Letter of Aristeas refers to 72 elders who had come to Alexandria from Jerusalem in order to translate the Torah of the Jews into…