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Soul, migration of the

(968 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] The Greek terms μετεμψύχωσις ( metempsýchōsis, literally 're-ensoulment'), μετενσωμάτωσις ( metensōmátōsis, 're-embodiment'), παλιγγενεσία ( palingenesía, 're-becoming') are not recorded in ancient sources before the 1st cent. BC (only the verbal phrase πάλιν γίγνεσθαι/ pálin gígnesthai is in Plato; the noun in the other sense, that of periodic world renewal, is documented in the older Stoa). However, the doctrine of the migration of the soul is demonstrably present in the Greek cultural sphere from the 2nd half o…

Petron

(117 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Πέτρων; Pétrōn) of Himera. Considered by Diels/Kranz to be one of the older Pythagoreans (No. 16). In the only testimony, the authenticity of which is disputed (Hippys FGrH 554 F 5 = Phaenias fr. 12 Wehrli = Plut. De def. or. 23, 422de; cf. [1; 2]), the hypothesis that there are 183 worlds connected in a row with each other is attributed to him. Cosmology; Pythagoras; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 114 n. 35 2 L. Zhmud, Wissenschaft, Philosophie und Religion im frühen Pyt…

Lysis

(198 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύσις; Lýsis). Pythagorean of Tarentum, who according to Aristoxenus fr. 18 Wehrli, at a young age escaped together with Archippus [2] the arson attack on the Pythagoreans in Croton dated at around 450 and 440 or 415; he is said to have then migrated to Greece and to have become the teacher of Epaminondas in Thebes (cf. Aristox. ibid.; Dion Chrys. or. 49,5 etc.; [1]). L.'s pseudepigraphic letter to Hipparchus [3], in which the latter is urged to adhere to Pythagoras' instructions …

Hermodamas

(86 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμοδάμας; Hermodámas). Descendant of the Homerid Creophylus of Samos (cf. [1]), probably 6th cent. BC. Is said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras in old age (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29 = Porph. vita Pythagorae 1; Antonius Diogenes p. 136 Stephens-Winkler = Porph. ibid. 15; Diog. Laert. 8,2; cf. Apul. Flor. 15; Iambl. VP 9 and 11; [2]).  Homerids;  Creophylus;  Pythagoras Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Die Leistung eines Kreophylos, in: MH 29, 1972, 77f. 2 M. Detienne, Homère, Hésiode et Pythagore, 1962, 13f.

Myia

(115 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Μυῖα; Myîa). Daughter of Pythagoras and Theano, according to Porph. Vita Pythagorica 4 (cf. Anon. Photii p. 237,16 Thesleff = Phot. Bibl. 249, VII p. 126,31 Henry; Suda s.v. M.), according to Iambl. VP 267 wife of Milon [2] of Croton. Perhaps she is the one referred to in Timaeus' report (FGrH 566 F 131 = Porph. ibid.) that Pythagoras' daughter, as a maiden, was the leader of the maidens in Croton, and as a woman she led the women. A pseudepigraphic letter to Phyllis regarding the proper choice of a nurse is found in [1]. Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Städele, D…

Pythagorean School

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
For the problematic nature of the tradition, see Pythagoras [2] A. [German version] A. Beginnings and organization In the sources, the beginnings of the Pythagorean School take on the aura of legend. When Pythagoras arrived at Croton, his appearance and speeches so overwhelmed those who met him that he was immediately joined by a large number of Crotonians and influential persons from the area (Dicaearchus fr. 33 Wehrli along with Porph. Vita Pythagorae 19; cf. Nicomachus in Porph. ibid. 20 and already Isocr. Or…

Lamiscus

(81 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λαμίσκος; Lamískos). A Tarantine, member of the circle around Archytas [1]; he led the legation that the friends of Plato in Tarentum sent to Syracuse in 360 BC after the latter's break with Dionysius [2] II. L. succeeded in getting Dionysius to let Plato leave Syracuse (Pl. Ep. 7, 350a 7-b 4; derived from this are the mentions of L. in the two forged Archytas letters in Diog. Laert. 3,22 and 8,80). Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)

Timycha

(70 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Τιμύχα; Timýcha). Spartan, 4th or end of the 6th cent. BC, wife of Myllias in a horror story told by Neanthes (FGrH 84 F 31). T. is mentioned in first place in the catalogue (perhaps dependent on Philochorus? [1]) of "most significant Pythagorean women" in Iambl. v.P. 267. Woman philosophers; Pythagoras [2]; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 10540.

Myllias

(141 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Μυλλίας/ Myllías). Pythagorean from Croton. It is said that he was reminded by Pythagoras of an earlier incarnation as Midas, son of the Phrygian king Gordius [1], and then went to Asia Minor to carry out rituals at Gordius's grave as ordered by Pythagoras (Aristot. fr. …

Petron

(107 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Πέτρων) von Himera. Von Diels/Kranz zu den älteren Pythagoreern gezählt (Nr. 16). Im einzigen Zeugnis, dessen Echtheit umstritten ist (Hippys FGrH 554 F 5 = Phainias fr. 12 Wehrli = Plut. de def. or. 23, 422de; vgl. [1; 2]), wird ihm die Lehre zugeschrieben, es gebe 183 Welten, die sich in einer Reihe aneinanderschlössen. Kosmologie; Pythagoras; Pythagoreische Schule Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 114 Anm. 35 2 L. Zhmud, Wiss., Philos. und Rel. im frühen Pythagoreismus, 1997, 69 Anm. 14. G. …

Lamiskos

(71 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Λαμίσκος). Tarentiner aus dem Umkreis des Archytas [1]; leitete die Gesandtschaft, welche die Tarentiner Freunde Platons im J. 360 v.Chr. nach dessen Bruch mit Dionysios [2] II. nach Syrakus entsandten; L. erreichte, daß Dionysios Platon aus Syrakus abreisen ließ (Plat. epist. 7, 350a 7-b 4; daraus abgeleitet die Erwähnungen des L. in den beiden gefälschten Archytasbriefen bei Diog. Laert. 3,22 und 8,80). Pythagoreische Schule Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)

Hermodamas

(83 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἑρμοδάμας). Nachfahre des Homeriden Kreophylos von Samos (vgl. [1]), wohl 6. Jh. v.Chr.. Soll in hohem Alter Lehrer des Pythagoras gewesen sein (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29 = Porph. vita Pythagorae 1; Antonios Diogenes p. 136 Stephens-Winkler = Porph. ebd. 15; Diog. Laert. 8,2; vgl. Apul. flor. 15; Iambl. v.P. 9 und 11; [2]). Homeriden; Kreophylos; Pythagoras Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Die Leistung eines Kreophylos, in: MH 29, 1972, 77f. 2 M. Detienne, Homère, Hésiode et Pythagore, 1962, 13f.

Myllias

(126 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Μυλλίας). Pythagoreer aus Kroton. Er soll von Pythagoras an die frühere Inkarnation als Midas, Sohn des Phrygerkönigs Gordios [1], erinnert worden sein, worauf er nach Kleinasien gefahren sei, um an dessen Grab die von Pythagoras verfügten Riten durchzuführen (Aristot. fr. 191 Rose = 174 Gigon = Ail. var. 4,17 und Iambl. v.P. 143). Der Name M. begegnet auch in einer Grusel-Gesch. des Neanthes FGrH 84 F 31 (= Iambl. v.P. 192-194), in der Dionysios [2] II. (bzw. I. laut [1]) aus i…

Pythagoreische Schule

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
Zur problematischen Überlieferungslage Pythagoras [2] A. [English version] A. Anfänge und Organisation Die Anfänge der P.Sch. sind in den Quellen legendenhaft verklärt: Bei der Ankunft in Kroton sollen Pythagoras' Erscheinung und seine Reden so überwältigend gewirkt haben, daß sich ihm eine große Zahl von Krotoniaten sowie einflußreiche Personen aus der Umgebung sogleich anschlossen (Dikaiarchos fr. 33 Wehrli mit Porph. vita Pythagorae 19; vgl. Nikomachos bei Porph. ebd. 20 und bereits Isokr. or. 11,29). In…

Myia

(101 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Μυῖα). Tochter des Pythagoras und der Theano laut Porph. vita Pythagorica 4 (vgl. Anon. Photii p. 237,16 Thesleff = Phot. bibl. 249, VII p. 126,31 Henry; Suda s.v. M.), nach Iambl. v.P. 267 Gattin des Milon [2] von Kroton. Auf sie bezieht sich vielleicht die Nachricht des Timaios (FGrH 566 F 131 = Porph. ebd.), Pythagoras' Tochter habe in Kroton als Jungfrau die Jungfrauen und als Frau die Frauen angeführt. Pseudepigraphischer Brief an Phyllis über die richtige Wahl einer Amme bei [1]. Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Städele, Die Briefe des Pythagor…

Lysis

(180 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Λύσις). Pythagoreer aus Tarent, der laut Aristoxenos fr. 18 Wehrli zusammen mit Archippos [2] in jugendlichem Alter dem um 450 bzw. 440 oder 415 datierten Brandanschlag auf die Pythagoreer in Kroton entkam; anschließend soll er nach Griechenland ausgewandert und in Theben Lehrer des Epameinondas geworden sein (vgl. Aristox. ebd.; Dion Chrys. or. 49,5 etc.; [1]). Großer Beliebtheit erfreute sich im Alt. der pseudepigraphische Brief des L. an Hipparchos [3], in dem dieser ermahnt …

Eurytus

(365 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Εὔρυτος; Eúrytos). [German version] [1] Hom. character Ruler of Oechalia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,596; 730. The location of Oechalia is unclear (on the Peloponnese?). In Hom. Od. 21,20ff., Iphitus the son of E., while searching for his horses in Messenia, gives Odysseus his father's great bow (with which Odysseus later kills the suitors), and on his search is later murdered by Heracles. E. himself is killed by Apollo, whom he challenges to an archery competition (Od. 8,224-228). He plays an important role in the non-extant early epic ‘The Capture of Oechalia’ (Οἰχαλίας ἅλωσις; Oichalías…

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Echecrates

(239 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης; Echekrátēs). [German version] [1] Thessalian condottierre of Ptolemy IV, c. 217 BC Thessalian condottiere of Ptolemy IV, whose training of the army and especially the cavalry significantly contributed to the victory at Raphia in 217 BC. In that battle, he commanded the right wing of …

Philolaus

(1,133 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Φιλόλαος; Philólaos). [German version] [1] P. of Corinth is said to have belonged to the group of nobles called the Bacchiadae, to have gone into exile in Thebes with his lover Diocles, and to have been buried there in a clearly visible tomb (Aristot. Pol. 1274a 31-b5). P. gave the Thebans laws on the procreation of children, which were referred to as νόμοι θετικοί ( nómoi thetikoí), apparently aimed at preserving the number of plots of land (Aristot. Pol. 1274b 2-5), perhaps through adoption of an heir by childless landowners. Such measures, which were also …
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