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(365 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Εὔρυτος; Eúrytos). [German version] [1] Hom. character Ruler of Oechalia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,596; 730. The location of Oechalia is unclear (on the Peloponnese?). In Hom. Od. 21,20ff., Iphitus the son of E., while searching for his horses in Messenia, gives Odysseus his father's great bow (with which Odysseus later kills the suitors), and on his search is later murdered by Heracles. E. himself is killed by Apollo, whom he challenges to an archery competition (Od. 8,224-228). He plays an important role in the non-extant early epic ‘The Capture of Oechalia’ (Οἰχαλίας ἅλωσις; Oichalías…


(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…


(192 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy Poet of the Old Comedy, one-time winner at the Dionysia of the 91st Olympiad (415-412 BC) [1.test.1.2]. 61 fragments and six titles are extant, amongst them an Amphitryon and a Plutos. Rhinon and ‘Fishes’ ( Ichthyes) -- portraying a fish state (cf. Aristophanes' state of birds) in conflict with the Athenians -- were probably written after 403 BC. Occasionally, four plays by Aristophanes were also attributed to A. [1.test.4]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 538-557. [German version] [2] Pythagoraean Pythagorean who, acc…


(81 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λαμίσκος; Lamískos). A Tarantine, member of the circle around Archytas [1]; he led the legation that the friends of Plato in Tarentum sent to Syracuse in 360 BC after the latter's break with Dionysius [2] II. L. succeeded in getting Dionysius to let Plato leave Syracuse (Pl. Ep. 7, 350a 7-b 4; derived from this are the mentions of L. in the two forged Archytas letters in Diog. Laert. 3,22 and 8,80). Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)


(198 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύσις; Lýsis). Pythagorean of Tarentum, who according to Aristoxenus fr. 18 Wehrli, at a young age escaped together with Archippus [2] the arson attack on the Pythagoreans in Croton dated at around 450 and 440 or 415; he is said to have then migrated to Greece and to have become the teacher of Epaminondas in Thebes (cf. Aristox. ibid.; Dion Chrys. or. 49,5 etc.; [1]). L.'s pseudepigraphic letter to Hipparchus [3], in which the latter is urged to adhere to Pythagoras' instructions …


(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…


(145 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Φίντυς; Phíntys). Pseudonymous female author of a work in Pythagorean spirit, Περὶ γυναικὸς σωφροσύνας ( Perì gynaikòs sōphrosýnas, 'On the self-control of women'; two relatively long fragments in Doric dialect are preserved in Stob. 4,23,61): a woman's characteristic virtue is self-control; some particular traits and abilities are common to both men and women, others are either male or female; philosophizing is common to both. A woman attains the good specific to her by means of five things: cha…


(86 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμοδάμας; Hermodámas). Descendant of the Homerid Creophylus of Samos (cf. [1]), probably 6th cent. BC. Is said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras in old age (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29 = Porph. vita Pythagorae 1; Antonius Diogenes p. 136 Stephens-Winkler = Porph. ibid. 15; Diog. Laert. 8,2; cf. Apul. Flor. 15; Iambl. VP 9 and 11; [2]).  Homerids;  Creophylus;  Pythagoras Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Die Leistung eines Kreophylos, in: MH 29, 1972, 77f. 2 M. Detienne, Homère, Hésiode et Pythagore, 1962, 13f.


(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …


(1,232 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ἀρχύτας, Archỳtas) [1] of Tarentum Pythagoraean philosopher [German version] A. Life Important Pythagorean philosopher of the ‘mathematical’ orientation, politician of Tarentum, a friend of Plato's. His life and his teachings are known in little more than outline because of insufficient records; his true works, with the exception of a few fragments, are lost, as is Aristoxenus' biography, Aristotle's treatise on A.'s philosophy and his comparison of Plato's Timaeus and A. (no. 94 in Diog. Laert. 5,25 = no. 85 in Hesychius' catalogue). A. is described as the so…


(239 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης; Echekrátēs). [German version] [1] Thessalian condottierre of Ptolemy IV, c. 217 BC Thessalian condottiere of Ptolemy IV, whose training of the army and especially the cavalry significantly contributed to the victory at Raphia in 217 BC. In that battle, he commanded the right wing of the cavalry. An anecdotally coloured representation of the battle is recorded in Diod. Sic. 16,26,6. PP 2, 2161. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Phleius Pythagorean from Phleius, who together with Phanton, Polymnastos and Diocles, who also…


(117 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Πέτρων; Pétrōn) of Himera. Considered by Diels/Kranz to be one of the older Pythagoreans (No. 16). In the only testimony, the authenticity of which is disputed (Hippys FGrH 554 F 5 = Phaenias fr. 12 Wehrli = Plut. De def. or. 23, 422de; cf. [1; 2]), the hypothesis that there are 183 worlds connected in a row with each other is attributed to him. Cosmology; Pythagoras; Pythagorean School Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972, 114 n. 35 2 L. Zhmud, Wissenschaft, Philosophie und Religion im frühen Pythagoreismus, 1997, 69 n. 14. G. Huxley, Petronian Numbers, in: GRBS 9, 1968, 55-57  J.-F. Mattéi, Pythagore et les Pythagoriciens, 1993, 35f.


(115 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[German version] (Μυῖα; Myîa). Daughter of Pythagoras and Theano, according to Porph. Vita Pythagorica 4 (cf. Anon. Photii p. 237,16 Thesleff = Phot. Bibl. 249, VII p. 126,31 Henry; Suda s.v. M.), according to Iambl. VP 267 wife of Milon [2] of Croton. Perhaps she is the one referred to in Timaeus' report (FGrH 566 F 131 = Porph. ibid.) that Pythagoras' daughter, as a maiden, was the leader of the maidens in Croton, and as a woman she led the women. A pseudepigraphic letter to Phyllis regarding the proper choice of a nurse is found in [1]. Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Städele, Die Briefe des Pythagoras und der Pythagoreer, 1980, 163-165, 251-253, 267-287.


(519 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἱκέτας; Hikétas). [German version] [1] Syracusan nobleman, tyrant of Leontini, around 350 BC Syracusan nobleman, friend of  Dion [I 1]. In the troubles after Dion's death in 353 BC he won the tyranny of Leontini. He initially supported the Syracusans in their struggle against  Dionysius [2] II. However, during his campaign against Syracuse in 346 he reached an understanding with Dionysius because of the approaching Carthaginians and supported his plea to the Corinthians for help. The superiority of the Cart…


(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia in advance and, therefore, was able to unjustly enrich himself (Plut. Solon 15,6-9; cf. [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 6,2). The story was probably invented in the late 5th cent. BC to discredit the descendants of these men (e.g., Alcibiades [3]). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 600 III Rhodes, 128f. Traill, PAA 575270. [German version] [2] Born c. 510 BC, son of Alcibiade…


(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes described as a Samian gem cutter (Diog. Laert. 8,1; Apul. Flor. 15; cf. Porph. Vita Pythagorica 1; [1]), sometimes as a merchant from the Tyrrhenian island of Lemnos who had settled on Samos (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29a = Porph. ibid…


(180 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Λύσις). Pythagoreer aus Tarent, der laut Aristoxenos fr. 18 Wehrli zusammen mit Archippos [2] in jugendlichem Alter dem um 450 bzw. 440 oder 415 datierten Brandanschlag auf die Pythagoreer in Kroton entkam; anschließend soll er nach Griechenland ausgewandert und in Theben Lehrer des Epameinondas geworden sein (vgl. Aristox. ebd.; Dion Chrys. or. 49,5 etc.; [1]). Großer Beliebtheit erfreute sich im Alt. der pseudepigraphische Brief des L. an Hipparchos [3], in dem dieser ermahnt …


(507 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἱκέτας). [English version] [1] Syrakusischer Adeliger, Tyrann über Leontinoi, um 350 v. Chr. Syrakusischer Adeliger, Freund des Dion [I 1]. In den Wirren nach dessen Tod 353 v.Chr. gewann er die Tyrannis über Leontinoi. Er unterstützte zunächst die Syrakusier im Kampf gegen Dionysios [2] II. Bei seinem Zug gegen Syrakus 346 verständigte er sich jedoch wegen der anrückenden Karthager mit Dionysios und unterstützte dessen Hilferuf an die Korinther. Die Übermacht der Karthager bewog ihn dann zu einem neuen Fro…


(305 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων). [English version] [1] Athen. Adliger, siegte 640 v. Chr. in Olympia, versuchte 632 eine Tyrannis zu errichten Athen. Adliger, Schwiegersohn des Theagenes von Megara, siegte 640 v.Chr. in Olympia. K. und seine hetaireía ( hetairía  [2]) besetzten um 632 die Akropolis in Athen, um dort eine Tyrannis zu errichten - möglicherweise mit Unterstützung aus Megara. K. gelang es nicht, die Bevölkerung für sich zu mobilisieren. Ein Aufgebot der Bürgerschaft belagerte zunächst die Putschisten und überließ es dan…


(83 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἑρμοδάμας). Nachfahre des Homeriden Kreophylos von Samos (vgl. [1]), wohl 6. Jh. v.Chr.. Soll in hohem Alter Lehrer des Pythagoras gewesen sein (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 29 = Porph. vita Pythagorae 1; Antonios Diogenes p. 136 Stephens-Winkler = Porph. ebd. 15; Diog. Laert. 8,2; vgl. Apul. flor. 15; Iambl. v.P. 9 und 11; [2]). Homeriden; Kreophylos; Pythagoras Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) Bibliography 1 W. Burkert, Die Leistung eines Kreophylos, in: MH 29, 1972, 77f. 2 M. Detienne, Homère, Hésiode et Pythagore, 1962, 13f.
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