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Sion, Bishopric

(174 words)

Author(s): Ries, Markus
[German Version] (Ger. Sitten). This diocese comprises the Swiss canton of Valais (Wallis) and the district of Aigle (Waadt), without the parish of St.-Gingolph and the territorial abbey of St.-Maurice. Initially it belonged to the ecclesiastical province of Vienne and after the ¶ 7th/8th century to Tarentaise; in 1513 it was made exempt (Exemption). Its ancient see at Martigny (Octodurus) was shifted to Sion in the 6th century. From the 12th century, the bishop was elected by the cathedral chapter, from 1604 by the cantonal parliament; …

Schiner, Matthäus

(210 words)

Author(s): Ries, Markus
[German Version] (1465, Mühlebach, near Ernen, Valais – Oct 1, 1522, Rome), between 1499 and 1522 prince-bishop of Sion, 1511 made cardinal priest of San Pudenziana, from 1512 till 1515 administrator apostolic of the bishopric of Novara, between 1520 and 1522 bishop of Catania. As prince-bishop in Valais, papal emissary (1507), and apostolic legate (1512), Schiner worked on the side of the pope and emperor to oppose France’s advance into Upper Italy; he brokered mercenary alliances between Roman a…

Soubirous, Bernadette, Saint

(179 words)

Author(s): Ries, Markus
[German Version] (baptized Marie- Bernarde; religious name: Marie-Bernard; Jan 7, 1844, Lourdes – Apr 16, 1879, Nevers), joined the Sisters of Charity of Nevers as a novice in 1866 but did not take ¶ permanent vows until 1878. Bernadette was born to an impoverished family and suffered from asthma, cholera, and tuberculosis of the bone. Between Feb 11 and Jul 16 of 1858, she experienced 18 visions in a grotto beside the Gave near Lourdes, encountering a white “something” ( aquerò), then a luminous “small young lady” ( uo pétito demizéla), which she experienced as an apparition of the …


(4,323 words)

Author(s): Wilke, Jürgen | Haberer, Johanna | Bohrmann, Thomas | Schmidt-Rost, Reinhard | Ries, Markus
[German Version] I. Sociology The press was the earliest of the modern mass media, the technical means of mass communication by which information can be duplicated and distributed to a large number of people (a dispersed public). The term goes back to the printing press, developed in the mid-15th century by J. Gutenberg. For a long time it covered all kinds of printed works, including books, but since the 19th century it has been narrowed to the periodicals press. This is justified insofar as regul…