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Śvetāmbara

(149 words)

Author(s): Rospatt, Alexander v
[English Version] . Die Ś. (wörtl. die »Weißgekleideten«) bilden die größte und einflußreichste Gruppierung unter den Jainas (Jinismus). Die Ś. lehnen das von den Digambaras als Ideal für Mönche postulierte Nacktsein als nicht angebracht ab und schreiben ihnen weiße Kleidung vor. Die sich in den ersten Jh. n. Chr. urspr. aufgrund räumlicher Trennung – die Digambaras besiedelten den Süden Indiens, die Ś. den Norden und insbes. den Westen, wo sie noch heute konzentriert sind – herauskristallisierend…

Nepal

(952 words)

Author(s): Rospatt, Alexander v.
[English Version] . Seit der Bildung des modernen nepalischen Staates in der 2. Hälfte des 18.Jh. bez. »N.« nicht mehr wie urspr. lediglich das Kathmandu-Tal, sondern das gesamte, neu geeinte Staatsgebiet. N. liegt an der Südflanke des Himalaya und erstreckt sich als schmaler Streifen auf einer Länge von ca.800 km von Nordwesten nach Südosten zw. der nordindischen Gangesebene und dem tibetischen Hochplateau. Das fast auf Meeresniveau liegende Flachland an der Südgrenze zu Indien ist von den 8000er…

Śvetāmbara

(151 words)

Author(s): Rospatt, Alexander v.
[German Version] The Śvetāmbara (lit. “white-clad”) are the largest and most influential group among the Jains (Jainism). They reject as unnecessary the complete ¶ nudity demanded as the monastic ideal in the strict asceticism followed by the Digambara and prescribe white robes instead. The Digambara settled in southern India, whereas the Śvetāmbara settled in the north and especially the west, where they are concentrated today. By the council of Valabhī in the mid-5th century at the latest, the difference that emerged…

Nepal

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Rospatt, Alexander v.
[German Version] Since the formation of the modern state in the second half of the 18th century, the term Nepal, which originally denoted only the Kathmandu valley, has denoted the whole newly united country. Nepal lies on the southern slopes of the Himalayas; it extends some 800 km as a narrow tract of land running northwest to southeast between the Gangetic plain in northern India and the high plateau of Tibet. The lowland on its southern border with India, almost at sea level, is only 130 to 200 km from its nor…

Mahāvīra

(502 words)

Author(s): Rospatt, Alexander v. | Moser-Achuthath, Heike
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Art History I. History of Religion Mahāvīra (“Great Hero”) is the honorific epithet by which Vardhamāna, the founder of the Jain community, is commonly known. The Jains consider him to be the last in a series of 24 “ford-makers” ( tīrthaṅkara) who appear in different ages in order to proclaim and revive the true doctrine of salvation, namely Jainism. Mahāvīra actually placed himself in the tradition of Pārśva, who lived roughly two and a half centuries earlier and was venerated as the 23rd Tīrth…