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(3,356 words)

Author(s): Rowland, Christopher
Chiliasm/Millenarianism (or Millennialism) refers to a set of ideas and takes its inspiration from Rev 20:1–6, where the saints who had been beheaded for their testimony to Christ (Christ, Jesus, 01: Survey) reign with him for a 1,000 years (Bietenhard, 1955). During this period Satan (Devil) is confined so that he would not deceive the nations. What is crucial about this passage is that it looks forward to a messianic reign on earth. This was a widely held view that early Christianity inherited from Jewish eschatology (Scholem, 1971; Saperstein, 1992). Arguably,…
Date: 2024-01-19


(204 words)

Author(s): Rowland, Christopher
[English Version] wird nur im Joh erwähnt, wo er als eine Schlüsselfigur unter den Jüngern Jesu erscheint (Joh 1,47–51). Er ist ein Auferstehungszeuge in Galiläa (Joh 21,2; dort mit Angabe seiner Herkunft aus Kana in Galiläa). N. gehört zu den Empfängern der Verheißung eines offenen Himmels und der Vision der über dem Menschensohn herauf- und herabfahrenden Engel (Joh 1,51), die sich eindeutig auf die Vision Jakobs in Gen 28,12 bezieht. Diese Passage steht wahrscheinlich hinter der Beschreibung N.…


(229 words)

Author(s): Rowland, Christopher
[German Version] is mentioned only in the Gospel of John where he appears as a key disciple of Jesus (John 1:47–51). He is a witness to his resurrection in Galilee (John 21:2; where he is said to be from Cana in Galilee). Nathanael is a recipient of the promise of an open heaven and of the vision of the angels ascending and descending upon the Son of Man (John 1:51), which alludes most clearly to Jacob’s vision in Gen 28:12. This passage probably lies behind the identification of Nathanael as an I…


(2,263 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Rowland, Christopher | Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] I. Klassisches Altertum Das häufig gebrauchte griech. Verb παρει˜n̆αι/parei´nai, »zugegen sein, hilfreich zur Seite stehen«, wird in bezug auf die Götter in einer speziellen Bedeutung gebraucht. Als Substantiv erhält P. (griech. παρουσι´α/parousi´a) in hell. Zeit die Bedeutung eines terminus technicus und bezieht sich auf ein Ritual, das die Ankunft inszeniert, mit der Gott/König nun nahe, mitten unter seinem Volk wohnt (etwa: Tegea feiert Hadrians Besuch als Gottes Ankunft, IG 5, 2.50). Die Betonung der Anwe…


(3,990 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Houtman, Cornelis | Rowland, Christopher | Lang, Bernhard | Farrow, Douglas B. | Et al.
[German Version] Cosmology and Kingdom of God I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament –III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Contemporary Art I. Religious Studies 1. To a vision that has not been tamed by scientific theory, heaven is a realm of the beyond (Hereafter, Concepts of the). Like the netherworld, it invades the human world as air or earth and sea, but it is beyond the experience of mortals; it is concrete, but cannot be entered. Observation of the concrete phenomena confirms the symbol …


(4,831 words)

Author(s): Hellholm, David | Kratz, Reinhard Gregor | Frankfurter, David | Dan, Joseph | Collins, Adela Yarbro | Et al.
[German Version] I. Definition of the Term as a Problem for the History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. Jewish Apocalypticism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Islam – VIII. Art History I. Definition of the Term as a Problem for the History of Religions As a phenomenon in the history of religions, apocalypticism represents a form of revealed communication distinct from other types such as prophecy (Prophets and prophecy: I), oracle, mantic…

History/Concepts of History

(12,750 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Görg, Manfred | Schlüter, Margarete | Römer, Nils | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Ancient Near East and Israel – III. Judaism – IV. Greece and Rome – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Philosophy I. Religious Studies History is a major aspect of the study of religion. Apart from its roots in the Enlightenment idea of tolerance, it owes its scholarly development to the historicism of the 19th century. As a result, the expression history of religions ( Religionsgeschichte, histoire des religions, storia delle religioni) has remained dominant in continental Europe, in con…