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Nūr Muḥammadī

(712 words)

Author(s): Rubin, U.
(a.), the Muḥammadan light. It is one of the most prominent names given to Muḥammad’s pre-existent entity which preceded the creation of Ādam [ q.v.]. The concept has its parallels in Jewish, Gnostic and neo-Platonic ideas (see I. Goldziher, Neuplatonische und Gnostische Elemente im Ḥadīt , in ZA, xxii [1909], 317 ff.; T. Andrae, Die Person Muhammeds , Upsala 1917, passim . See also, L. Massignon, Al-Ḥallāj , Paris 1922, passim; idem, Recueil ..., 1929, passim). Not all Muslim scholars and theologians agreed on the nature of Muḥammad’s pre-existence. Al-G̲h̲azālī (d. 505/1111 [ q.v.]) a…

al-Naʿl al-S̲h̲arīf

(1,513 words)

Author(s): Rubin, U.
, Naʿl Rasūl Allāh (a.), the sandal of the Prophet Muḥammad. Sandals belong to the pre-Islamic Arabian clothing (see libās . 1), and are considered one of the features distinguishing Arabs from non-Arabs ( ʿad̲j̲am ). The scholar Mālik b. Anas (d. 180/796 [ q.v.]) reportedly declared that only Arabs used to wear turbans and sandals (Ibn Abī Zayd, al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ fi ’l-sunan wa ’l-ādāb wa ’l-mag̲h̲āzī wa ’l-taʾrīk̲h̲ , Tunis 1982, 228). The Prophet himself reportedly advised the believers to wear sandals as well as boots to distinguish themselves…

Malaʾ

(1,164 words)

Author(s): Rubin, U.
(a.), lit. a “group (of people)”, or a “host”, or a “crowd”, like d̲j̲amāʿa , ḳawm [ q.vv.], nafar , rahṭ , and more generally, “the public”, and hence, fī malaʾ , fi ’l-malaʾ “publicly” (e.g. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ṣaḥīḥ , 9 vols., Cairo 1958, ix, 148 = kitāb 97, bāb 15). The word also denotes decisions taken as a result of collective consultation, as in the phrase ʿan [ g̲h̲ayri ] malaʾin minnā “[not] as a result of our consultation” (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad , 6 vols., Cairo 1313/1895, repr. Beirut n.d., i, 463). Since collective decisions are usually taken by the leaders of the group, al-malaʾ very often…

Sāʿa

(3,572 words)

Author(s): Hill, D.R. | Rubin, U.
(a.) "hour", hence "clock". 1. In technology. Monumental water-clocks are described in detail in two Arabic treatises. Al-Ḏj̲azarī [ q.v. in Suppl.] in his book on mechanical contrivances completed in Diyār Bakr in 602/1206 describes two such machines. Riḍwān b. al-Sāʿātī, in a treatise dated 600/1203, describes the water-clock built by his father Muḥammad at the Ḏj̲ayrūn gate in Damascus (see E. Wiedemann and F. Hauser, Über die Uhren in Bereich der Islamischen Kultur , in Nova Acta der Kaiserl . Leop . Deutschen Akad . der Naturforscher , ciii [1918], 167-27…