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Ḳāyi̊

(409 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, one of the Og̲h̲uz tribes to which, as claimed by some Turkish chroniclers, the Ottoman dynasty belongs. The Ḳāyi̊ were considered as the noblest of the Og̲h̲uz tribes. The high prestige which they enjoyed seems to have rested on the fact that most of the rulers or yabg̲h̲us of the Og̲h̲uz people living along the Syr Daryā (Sayḥūn = Jaxartes) during the period between the 9th and 11th centuries were from this tribe. Some of the names of these kings are mentioned in the chapter of D̲j̲āmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ dealing with the legendary history of the Og̲h̲uz Turks.…

Ḳarā Gözlū

(640 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, Turkish tribe in Iran. It is not mentioned in any 10th/16th or 11th/17th century sources. Originally a member of the famous S̲h̲āmlu tribe during the Ṣafawid period, the tribe must have taken its name from one of its beys; it is probable that it originated in the Bey Dili sub-tribe of the S̲h̲āmlu. The homeland of the Ḳara Gözlü was the Hamadān region, but in the mid-20th century there was a small branch known by the same name in Fars. The Ḳarā Gözlü had abandoned a fully nomadic life as early as the beginning of the 19th century, and lived in la…

Ḳād̲j̲ār

(674 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, Turcoman tribe, from which sprang a ruling dynasty of Persia (see next article). There is no foundation for the statements of later historians that the Ḳād̲j̲ār tribe entered Iran with Hūlāgū [ q.v.]. In the 9th/15th century they formed part of the Boz Ok branch of the Turcomans of Anatolia, dwelling in the Kayseri-Sivas region and recognizing the suzerainty of the D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳadr rulers. They probably take their name from a leader named Ḳarāçar (=Ḳarçar). In the 9th/15th century they were divided into four sub-tribes ( oba ): Ag̲h̲ča Koyunlu, Ag̲h̲čalu, S̲h̲ā…

Bayi̊ndi̊r

(255 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, one of the Og̲h̲uz (Türkmen) tribes. The Aḳ-Ḳoyunlu, founders of the dynasty called by the same name, are a clan of this tribe, and some historians call the Aḳ-Ḳoyunlu dynasty ‘Bayi̊ndi̊r Ḵh̲ān Og̲h̲lanlari̊’ or ʿĀl-i Bayi̊ndi̊riyye’, and the Aḳ-Ḳoyunlu state ‘Dewlet-i Bayi̊ndi̊riyye’. It is possible that the Bayi̊ndi̊r took part in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ conquest of Anatolia. There were many places in central and western Turkey called after them in the 9th/15th and 10th/16th centuries. No doubt most o…

Ḳarā-Ḳoyunlu

(3,727 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, Turkish dynasty which ruled over parts of Eastern Anatolia, ʿIrāḳ, al-Ḏj̲azīra, and most of Iran, also known as the Barānī (Bārānlu). It is not known why the dynasty was given This name. The Ḳarā-Ḳoyunlu tribe was undoubtedly a sub-tribe ( oba ) of the Og̲h̲uz. Minorsky’s claim that This sub-tribe belonged to the Yiwa is probably true ( The Clan of the Qara Qoyunlu rulers, in Köprülü Armaǧani , Istanbul 1953, 391-5). The political achievements of the dynasty led many tribes to enter the service of the Ḳarā-Ḳoyunlu, notably the Saʿdlu (Nak̲…

Ḳarāmān-Og̲h̲ullari̊

(7,243 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
( ḳarāmānids ), a Turkish dynasty which ruled over the regions of Ič-Il, Ḳonya and Niğde [ qq.v.]. The claim made by Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ -og̲h̲lu ʿAlī [ q.v.] that the Ḳarāmān-og̲h̲ullari̊ belonged to the Avs̲h̲ar [see afs̲h̲ar ] tribe is plausible. It is probable that they were settled in Arrān [ q.v.] prior to the Mongol invasion, that because of it they had to immigrate to the Sivas region, and that after taking part in the Babāʾī [ q.v.] revolt they moved to the Ermenek region and established their home there. The Ermenek-Mut-Anamur region was conquered in 622/1225 during th…

K̲h̲āṣṣ Beg

(263 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
or Arslan Beg b. Balangirī (d. 547 or 548/1153), Turkmen amīr under the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs of ʿIrāḳ and western Persia. The name K̲h̲āṣṣ Beg seems to have been bestowed on him because of his favoured position under Sulṭān Masʿūd b. Muḥammad (529-47/1134-52); it is used in similar contexts in the works of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī and in the Kitāb Dede Ḳorḳut . During the latter years of Masʿūd’s reign, K̲h̲āṣṣ Beg secured an ascendancy in the state, disposing of such rivals as Tog̲h̲a Yürek’s son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, governor of Arrān (541/1147)…

Eymir

(532 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
( Eymür ), name of an Og̲h̲uz tribe ( boy ). They are mentioned in a legendary account of the pagan Og̲h̲uz as being the only tribe of the Üč-ok group from whom sprang rulers, but the historical references to them so far known go back only to the 10th/16th century, when they formed part of Türkmen confederations in the Ottoman Empire, in Persia, and south-east of the Caspian Sea. (1) The Eymir of the Ottoman domains were in two main branches, the one living among the Türkmen of Aleppo, the other with the Dulkadi̊rli̊ confederation ( ulus ). The former consisted, in the reign¶ of Süleymān I, of fou…

Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a

(372 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, güzeld̲j̲e , Ottoman vizier in the reign of Süleymān the Magnificent, after whom a quarter of Istanbul is called. The facts given about his life in historical records are few and scanty. The earliest historical reference to him concerns his appointment to Ḥamā as sand̲j̲aḳ beg following the victory of Mard̲j̲ Dābiḳ. During his term of office, Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a suppressed the revolt of Ibn Ḥafs̲h̲, a rebel Arab amīr. Having been appointed Anadolu beglerbegi on Süleymān’s succession to the throne, Ḳāsim Pas̲h̲a took part in the expedition against Rho…

Begdili

(351 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, a tribe of the Boz-oḳ branch of the Og̲h̲uz (Türkmen) peoples. Anūs̲h̲tagīn, ancestor of the Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āh dynasty, is sometimes believed to be of this tribe, but this is probably not so. A large Begdili community was found among the Türkmens in Syria in the 8th/14th century. At that time they were led by Tas̲h̲k̲h̲un (Tas̲h̲kun) Og̲h̲ullari̊. They were regarded as one of the most important Türkmen tribes in Syria in the 9th/15th century. Another important branch of this tribe lived in the 14 villages of th…

Bayat

(426 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, an Og̲h̲uz (Türkmen) tribe. The Bayat are understood to have taken part in the conquests of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in Anatolia. The nickname al-Bayātī given to Sunḳur, representative in Baṣra in 512-3/1119 of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid amīr Aḳ Sunḳur al-Buk̲h̲ārī, is quite probably connected with this tribe. There were numerous places called Bayat or Bayad in central and western Turkey in the 9th/15th and 10th/16th centuries of which few survive today. Most of these place-names, no doubt, belonged to the Bayat w…

Čepni

(396 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, an Og̲h̲uz tribe, which holds an important place in the political and religious history of Turkey, and in the history of its occupation by the Turks. The most intimate mürīds of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ belonged to this tribe, an important branch of which must therefore have been living in the Ḳi̊rs̲h̲ehir region in the 13th century. In the second half of this century there was another important group of the Čepni in the Samsun region, who in 676/1277 successfully defended Samsun against the forces of th…

Döger

(528 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, name of an Og̲h̲uz tribe ( boy ). They are mentioned in the Og̲h̲uz-nāme (the account of the life of the Og̲h̲uz people before they embraced Islam, see F. Sümer, Oǧuzlar’a ait destanî mahiyette eserler , in Ank. Ün. DTCFD , xvii/3-4), where it is said that some prominent beys of the Og̲h̲uz rulers belonged to This tribe. According to the Syrian historian S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad al-D̲j̲azarī (658/1260-739/1338), the Artuk [ q.v.] dynasty, ruling the Mardin-Diyārbekir region, belonged to the Döger tribe (F. Sümer, op. cit., 405, n. 171), which must therefore have taken part in th…

Ḳāsi̊m Pas̲h̲a

(364 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, Güzeld̲j̲e, vizir ottoman sous le règne de Suleymān le Magnifique; un quartier important et célèbre d’Istanbul porte son nom. Les documents historiques donnent peu de renseignements sur sa vie; l’information la plus ancienne concerne sa nomination comme sand̲j̲aḳ beg de Ḥamāt après la victoire de Mard̲j̲ Dābiḳ [ q.v.] et, durant cette période, il fit exécuter Ibn Ḥafs̲h̲, un amīr arabe rebelle. Après avoir été nommé beglerbegi d’Anatolie lors de l’accession au trône ottoman de Süleymān, il prit part, en 930/1523, à l’expédition de Rhodes et devint gouverneur …

Eymir

(533 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
(Eymür), nom d’une tribu ( boy) og̲h̲uze mentionnée dans un récit légendaire des Og̲h̲uz paϊens comme étant la seule tribu du groupe Üč-ok d’où soient issus les chefs, mais les attestations historiques qu’on en possède jusqu’ici ne remontent qu’au Xe/XVIe siècle, époque à laquelle elle faisait partie des confédérations turkmènes dans l’empire ottoman, en Perse et au Sud-est de la mer Caspienne. I. Les Eymir des territoires ottomans étaient divisés en deux branches principales, dont l’une habitait parmi les Turkmènes d’Alep, l’autre dans la confédération ( ulus) des Dulkadi̊rli̊. …

Čepni

(400 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, tribu og̲h̲uze qui occupe une place importante dans l’histoire politique et religieuse de la Turquie et dans l’histoire de son occupation par les Turcs. Les plus intimes mürids de Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ appartenaient à cette tribu, dont une importante branche doit donc avoir vécu dans la région de Ḳi̊rs̲h̲ehir au VIIe/XIIIe s. Durant la seconde moitié de ce siècle, il y avait, dans la région de Samsun, un autre groupe important de Čepni qui, en 676/1277, défendit avec succès la ville contre les troupes de l’empereur de Trébizonde, et joua au VIIIe/XIVe s. le rôle principal dans la co…

ḲArĀ Gözlu

(645 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, tribu turque d’Iran dont il n’est fait mention dans aucune des sources des Xe/XVIe et XIe/XVIIe siècles. Elle dépendait à l’origine de la fameuse tribu des S̲h̲āmlu de la période ṣafawide et peut-être plus spécialement de la fraction des Bey Dili, et il est probable qu’elle doit son nom à l’un de ses beys. L’habitat d’origine des Ḳarā Gözlü est la région de Hamadān, mais il en existait encore naguère une ¶ petite branche dans le Fārs. Ils ne sont plus entièrement nomades depuis le début du XIXe siècle et ils peuplent des villages importants et prospères dans la plaine de Hamadān;…

Ḳāyi̊

(414 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, tribu og̲h̲uze à laquelle, selon certains chroniqueurs turcs, appartient la dynastie ottomane; les Ḳāyi̊ étaient considérés comme les plus nobles de tous les membres de ces tribus, et le prestige dont ils jouissaient semble être dû au fait qu’ils ont donné, entre le IXe et le XIe/XVe-XVIIe siècles, la majeure partie de ses dirigeants ( yabg̲h̲u = bayg̲h̲u) au peuple og̲h̲uz qui habitait le long du Sir Darya (Sayḥūn = Iaxartes). Le nom de certains de ces rois se retrouve dans le chapitre du Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-tawārīk̲h̲ qui traite de l’histoire légendaire des Turcs oghuz. La tribu des Ḳ…

K̲h̲āṣṣ Beg

(281 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
ou Arslan Beg b. Balangirī (m. 547 ou 548/1153), amīr turkmène de l’époque des Grands-Sald̲j̲ūḳides du ʿIrāḳ et de la Perse occidentale. Le nom de Ḵh̲āṣṣ Beg paraît lui avoir été donné à cause de sa situation privilégiée sous le règne du sultan Masʿūd b. Muḥammad (529-47/1134-52); il est en effet employé dans des contextes semblables dans les oeuvres de Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Rūmī et dans le Kitāb Dede Ḳorḳut. Dans les dernières années du règne de Masʿūd, Ḵh̲āṣṣ Beg acquit une grande influence dans l’État, et disposa de ses rivaux, notamment du fils de Tog̲h̲a Yürek, ʿA…

Begdili

(329 words)

Author(s): Sümer, F.
, tribu de la branche boz-oḳ des Og̲h̲uz (Turkmènes). Anūs̲h̲tagīn, ancêtre de la dynastie des Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs, passe parfois pour avoir été de cette tribu, mais c’est probablement faux. Une vaste communauté begdilie fut fondée parmi les Turkmènes, en Syrie, au VIIIe/XIVe siècle; à cette époque, ils étaient conduits par Tas̲h̲k̲h̲un (Tas̲h̲kun) Og̲h̲ullari̊, et on les considérait comme l’une des plus importantes tribus turkmènes de Syrie au IXe/XVe siècle. Une autre branche importante de cette tribu occupa les quatorze villages du district de Gülnar dans la p…
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