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Dāg̲h̲

(1,827 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Nawwāb Mīrza K̲h̲ān (originally called Ibrāhīm, Āʾīna-i Dāg̲h̲ ), one of the most distinguished Urdū poets of modern times. He was a son of Nawwāb S̲h̲ams al-Dīn K̲h̲ān. ruler of Fīrūzpur D̲j̲hirkā, and Wazīr Begam (usually called Čhot́ī Begam). Nawwāb Mīrzā was born in Čāndnī Čawk, Dihlī on 12 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1246/25 May 1831 (cf. his horoscope in D̲j̲alwa-i Dāg̲h̲ , 9). When S̲h̲ams al-Dīn K̲h̲ān was hanged (Oct. 1835) for his part in the murder of Mr. W. Fraser, Resident of Dihlī, Nawwāb Mirzā K̲h̲ān’s mother…

Čirāg̲h̲-i Dihlī

(1,181 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
("Light of Dihlī"), the laḳab of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Naṣīr al-Dīn Maḥmūd b. Yaḥyā Yazdī , Awadhī , said to be based on a remark of his contemporary S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAbd Allāh b. Asʿad al-Yāfiʿī (d. 768/1367) ( Firishta , ii, 7817, 7473, Ḏj̲amālī, 141b). He was one of the most eminent ¶ disciples of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Niẓām al-Dīn Awliyāʾ. His father Yaḥyā was born in Lāhore. Later the family settled at Awadh (Ayōdhyā), where his father traded in woollen cloth or cotton ( pas̲h̲mīna in Ḵh̲ayr al-Mad̲j̲ālis , var. panbe in Ak̲h̲bār 80). It was in Awadh that Maḥmūd was born, but he wa…

ʿAbd al-Karīm Kas̲h̲mīrī

(261 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
b. ʿĀkibat Maḥmūd b. Bulāḳī b. Muḥ. Riḍā , Indo-Persian historian. From autobiographical references in his Bayān-i Wāḳiʿ we learn that he was living in Dihlī at the time of its sack by Nādir S̲h̲āh (1151/1739), and entered the service of Nādir as a mutaṣaddī . He accompanied Nādir on his march from Dihlī to Ḳazwīn, reaching Ḳazwīn in 1154/1741. From there he travelled to Mecca and returned to India by sea in 1156/1743. He died in 1198/1784. He is the author of a history of his own times from Nādir S̲h̲āh’s invasion of India to 1198/1784 (the India Office copy, Ethé 566, c…

Budhan

(301 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , of D̲j̲awnpūr, a holy man belonging to the order known as S̲h̲aṭṭāriyya [ q.v.], ( Ak̲h̲bār al-Ak̲h̲yār 193; Ad̲h̲kār-i Abrār 284 ff.). He was descended from S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAbd Allāh S̲h̲aṭṭārī (d. 890/1485, in Māndū), who himself was the seventh descendant of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn ʿUmar b. Muḥammad al-Suhrawardī and came to India from Persia towards the end of the 9th/15th century (for him see Ak̲h̲bār al-Ak̲h̲yār, 171; Ad̲h̲kār-i Abrār, 161, 286; Maʿārid̲j̲ al-Wilāya , f. 538; Muftī G̲h̲ulām Sarwar, Ḵh̲azīnat al-Aṣfiyāʾ , Lāhore 1283, 947; ʿAbd al-Ḥayy, Nuzhat al-Ḵ…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ b. Sayf al-Dīn

(542 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
al-Dihlawī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Abu l-Mad̲j̲d, with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Ḥaḳḳī , Indian author in Arabic and Persian, born Muḥarram 958/Jan. 1551, died 2 Rabīʿ II 1052/30 June 1642. He spent some time in Fatḥpūr, studying with Fayḍī and Mīrzā Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad, but fell out with them (cf. Badāʾūnī, iii, 113, 115 ff.; al-Makātib wa l-Rasāʾil , on marg. of Ak̲h̲bār al-Ak̲h̲yār , Delhi, 1332, 160; ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ’s book on the writers of Delhi, cf. below, p. 20; Haft Iḳlīm , s. v. Dihli). He left for the Ḥid̲j̲āz in 996 ( Ad̲h̲kār-i Abrār , Urdu transl. of G̲h̲awt̲h̲ī’s Gulzār-i Abrār , …

Bāyazīd (or Bāzīd as engraved on his seal, Tad̲h̲kirat al-Abrār f. 88a) Anṣārī

(3,787 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
“pīr-i raws̲h̲ān (or raws̲h̲an ) b. ʿabd allāh ḳāḍī b. s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ muḥammad , the founder of a religious and national movement of the Afg̲h̲āns (called pīr-tārīk by the Mug̲h̲al historians etc., after Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mullā Muḥammad, commonly known as Mullā Zangī, a teacher of the Pīr’s chief opponent Āk̲h̲und Darwīza, who was the first to dub him thus ( Tad̲h̲kira f. 92). He claimed descent through S̲h̲. Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn (his fifth ancestor) from (Abū) Ayyūb al-Anṣārī, the famous Companion of the Prophet, (his 21st ancestor). His mother Aymana (varr. Bih-bīn, Bīban, Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

Ḏh̲awḳ

(1,450 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , Urdū poet b. Dihlī 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1204/18 December 1790 (so Āzād; in 1203 according to a contemporary Calcutta newspaper, cf. Nawā-i Adab , 45), the only son of S̲h̲. Muḥammad Ramaḍān, a trusted servant of Nawwāb Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān of Dihlī. His early schooling in Persian and Arabic was in the mosque-school of Ḥāfiẓ G̲h̲ulām Rasūl S̲h̲awḳ, a poet and a pupil of S̲h̲āh Naṣīr (S̲h̲eftā, 150), who inspired the young learner with a love for reading and writing poetry…

Burhān al-Dīn G̲h̲arīb

(717 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, i.e., s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ muḥammad b. nāsir al-dīn maḥmūd , sister’s son of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Nuʿmānī Hānsawī (for him see Ak̲h̲yār 67) and one of the earliest and most devoted disciples, and a Ḵh̲alīfa of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Niẓām al-Dīn of Delhī (d. 725/1325). He was born in Hānsī (East Pand̲j̲āb) in 654/1256 and died in Deōgīr (Dawlatābād) on 11 Ṣafar 738/8 Sept. 1337 ( Nuzha after Rawḍat al-Awliyāʾ ), according to others ( e.g., Ḵh̲azīna ) in 741/1340-1, and was buried at Rawḍa (Ḵh̲uldābād). After spending his early years in Hānsī, he went to Delhī and studied fiḳh , uṣūl , and ʿar…

Rafīʿ al-Dīn

(834 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Mawlānā S̲h̲āh Muḥammad b. S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm al-ʿUmarī (after the caliph ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb), was born in 1163/1750 in Dihlī, in a family which enjoyed the highest reputation in Muslim India for learning and piety, from the 18th century onwards, and produced a number of eminent ʿulamāʾ up to the Sepoy Rebellion of 1837-8 (see Ṣiddīḳ Ḥasan K̲h̲ān, Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ , Kānpur 1288, 296-7; JASB, xiii, 310). He studied ḥadīt̲h̲ with his father, S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh [see al-dihlawī , s̲h̲āh walī allāh ] who was the most celebrated traditionist in his time, in India. After the dea…

Ratan

(1,943 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Bābā , Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī , Abu ’l-Riḍā , a longlived Indian saint, famous in almost all the lands of Islam, called Ratan b. Kirbāl b. Ratan al-Batrandī in the Ḳāmūs (Cairo 1330, iv, 226; see variants in Iṣāba , Calcutta, i, 1087; Lisān al-mīzān , ii, 450 ff.). The nisba (vocalised as al-Bitrandī in Lisān al-mīzān, and Tād̲j̲ al-ʿarūs , ix, 212) is derived, according to al-Zabīdī, from al-Bitranda, “a city in India”, where, as we learn from the Āʾīn-i Akbarī (ed. Sayyid Aḥmad K̲h̲ān, ii, 207 = tr. Jarrett, iii, 360), Ratan was born and where he died. This p…

Baḥr al-ʿUlūm

(1,156 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
(“Ocean of the Sciences”), honorific title of abu ’l-ʿayyās̲h̲ ʿabd al-ʿalī muḥammad b. niẓām al-dīn muḥammad b. ḳuṭb al-dīn al-anṣārī al-laknawī , a highly distinguished Indian savant of the 19th century. He claimed descent from the famous Ḵh̲wād̲j̲a ʿAbd Allāh Anṣārī Harawī, whose descendant S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAlaʾ al-Dīn (ʿAbd al-ʿAlī’s tenth ancestor) came from Harāt to India, and now lies buried at Barnāwa (between Mut̲h̲rā and Delhī). The next generation settled in Sihālī, a town near Lucknow. U…

Dabīr, Salāmat ʿAlī

(936 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Mīrzā , Lakhnawī , an Urdū poet, who devoted himself to writing and reciting highly devotional elegies on the death of the martyrs of Karbalā. He was a son of Mīrzā G̲h̲ulām Ḥusayn, who is claimed to be a grandson of Mullā Hās̲h̲im S̲h̲īrāzī (a brother of the famous Ahlī of S̲h̲īrāz, d. 934/1536-7). Salāmat ʿAlī was born in Ballīmārān, Dihlī on 11 Ḏj̲umāda I 1218/29 August 1803; he accompanied his father as a child to Lucknow and there received a good education. He studied all the usual Persian and Arabic texts on religious and foreign sciences ( manḳūl wa maʿḳūl ) from well-known ʿulamāʾ

Rafīʿ al-Dīn

(852 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
Mawlānā S̲h̲āh Muḥammad, b. S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm al-ʿOmarī (after the Caliph ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb), was born in 1163 (1750) in Dihlī, in a family which enjoyed the highest reputation in Muslim India for learning and piety, from the xviiith century onwards, and produced a number of eminent ʿulamāʾ up to the “Mutiny” (see Ṣiddīḳ Ḥasan Ḵh̲ān, Itḥāf al-Nubatāʾ, Cawnpur 1288, p. 296 sq.; J. A. S. B., xiii. 310). He studied ḥadīt̲h̲ with his father, who was the most celebrated traditionist in his time, in India. After the death of his father in 1176, he was brought up by his…

Sand̲j̲ān Rāy

(353 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
(or Sud̲j̲ān rāy; cf. Rieu, i. 230; iii. 908), author of a general history of India up to the early part of the reign of Awrangzēb [q. v.], entitled Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-Tawārīk̲h̲. Nothing is known of his life except the few facts that he mentions himself and the remarks added by transcribers of his book. In his preface (lith. ed., p. 6, 11) he tells us that from his youth upwards he had followed “the profession of drafting letters i. e. of a Muns̲h̲ī” under administrative and revenue officials; he was born at Batāla in the Pand̲j̲āb (p. 71, 20); he had visited Kābul (p. 86), possibly Thatta (p. 60, 6), and t…

ʿAbd al-Karīm Muns̲h̲ī

(917 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, or more fully Muns̲h̲ī Mawlawī Muḥ. ʿAbd al-Karīm ʿAlawī , Indo-Persian historian of the middle of the 19th century. He may have lived in Lucknow ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Pand̲j̲āb , 2, Muḥāraba 21) or Cawnpūr ( Muḥāraba, 3). He was fond of studying history, and during his retirement rendered from Arabic into Persian al-Suyūṭī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Ḵh̲ulafāʾ ,and Taʾrīk̲h̲ Miṣr , and prepared an abridged version of Ibn Ḵh̲allikān in Persian. He also translated astronomical and geographical works from English into Persian and Urdu, as well as story-…

Rafīʿ al-Dīn

(868 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Mawlānā S̲h̲āh Muḥammad b. S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh b. ʿAbd al-raḥīm al-ʿUmarī (d’après le calīfe ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb). né en 1163/1750 à Dihlī, appartenait à une famille qui, à partir du XVIIIe siècle, a joui d’une très haute réputation dans l’Inde musulmane pour son savoir et sa piété et produit un certain nombre de ʿulamāʾ éminents jusqu’à l’époque de la révolte des Cipayes de 1857-8 (voir Ṣiddīḳ Ḥasan Ḵh̲ān. Itḥāf al-nubalāʾ, Cawnpur 1288, 296 sqq.; JASB, XIII, 310). Il étudia le ḥadīt̲h̲ avec son père, S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh [voir al-Dihlawī, S̲h̲āh Walī Allāh] qui fut le plus célèbre trad…

Burhān al-Dīn Ḳuṭb-i ʿĀlam

(698 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Nāṣir al-dīn Maḥmūd (ou Muḥammad) b. Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Mak̲h̲dūm-i Ḏj̲ahāniyān, connu habituellement sous le nom de Ḳuṭb-i ʿĀlam, célèbre saint suhrawardī, et fondateur des Sayyids buk̲h̲āriyya de Gud̲j̲arāt (Inde Occidentale); on le connaissait également sous le nom de T̲h̲ānī-i Mak̲h̲dūm-i Ḏj̲ahāniyān (Maʿārid̲j̲). Né à Učča (maintenant Bahāwalpur) le 14 rad̲j̲ab 790/19 juillet 1388, il mourut à Batwa (Ardastānī, Maḥfīl al-aṣfiyāʾ, fol. 329 b; cf. Ulug̲h̲k̲h̲ānī, I, 1407) ou Bātwa ( Maʿārid̲j̲), village situé à 10 km. au Sud d’Aḥmadābād, le 8…

Burhān al-Dīn Ḳuṭb-i ʿĀlam

(694 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, i.e. abū muḥammad ʿabd allāh b. nāṣir al-dīn maḥmūd (or Muḥammad) b. d̲j̲alāl al-dīn mak̲h̲dūm-i d̲j̲ahāniyān , usually known as Ḳuṭb-i ʿĀlam , a famous Suhrawardī saint and the founder of the Buk̲h̲āriyya Sayyids of Gud̲j̲arāt (W. India). He was also known as T̲h̲ānī-i Mak̲h̲dūm-i D̲j̲ahāniyān ( Maʿārid̲j̲). Born at Uchcha (now in Bahāwalpur) on 14 Rad̲j̲ab 790/19 July 1388, he died at Batwa (Ardastānī, Maḥfil al-Aṣfiyā , f. 329b; cf. Ulug̲h̲-k̲h̲ānī , i, 1407), or Bātwa ( Maʿārid̲j̲) a village 6 miles south of Aḥmadābād, on 8 D̲h̲u ʾl-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 857/10 December 1453 ( Maṭlaʿ yawm al-…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿUmar al-Bag̲h̲dādī

(698 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
, a well-known philologist, born in Baghdad in 1030/1621 and died in Cairo in 1093/1682. His early education began in Bag̲h̲dād, which from 941/1534 had been the scene of a fierce struggle between the Ṣafawids and the ʿUt̲h̲mānlis. When in 1048/1638 it was retaken by the Turks, under the personal direction of Murād IV, ʿAbd al-Ḳādir left for Damascus. He had by that time acquired a thorough acquaintance with Arabic, Persian and Turkish. He studied Arabic in Damascus with Muḥ. b. Kamāl al-Dīn al-Ḥusaynī, the naḳīb of Syria, and with Muḥ. b. Yaḥyā al-Farāʾiḍī…

Ḏh̲awḳ

(1,483 words)

Author(s): S̲h̲afīʿ, Muḥammad
Muḥammad Ibrāhīm S̲h̲ayk̲h̲. poète en ourdou, né à Dihlī le 11 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1204/22 ¶ août 1790 (ainsi dans Āzād; en 1203 d’après un journal contemporain de Calcutta, cf. Nawā-i adab, 45), fils unique de S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥammad Ramaḍān, serviteur de confiance du nawwāb Luṭf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān de Dihlī. Ses premières études en arabe et en persan eurent lieu à la mosquée-école de Ḥāfiẓ G̲h̲ulām Rasūl S̲h̲awḳ, poète et élève de S̲h̲āh Naṣīr (S̲h̲ēftā, 150), qui inculqua au jeune homme le goût de lire et de faire de la poésie. Ḏh̲awḳ devint par …
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