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(1,028 words)

Author(s): Sandschneider, Eberhard | Gottwald, Jörn C.
The progress which the economic and social development of China is experiencing almost inevitably raises the question of how the political institutions of the socialist system will be able to remain in accordance with rapid economic and social changes. During the controversy over the universality of human rights, which scholarly circles as well as the public discussed as the "debate on Asian values" in the 1990s, social values were time and again related to the possibilities of realizing a democ…


(2,024 words)

Author(s): Sandschneider, Eberhard | Junhua, Zhang
In order to prevent its downfall, the Qing dynasty in 1905 initiated a constitutional reform. Official delegations were sent to Japan and Western Europe to investigate the legal foundations of a parliament. In 1909, assemblies ( ziyiju) were established at provincial level. A year later, the Provisional National Assembly ( zizhengyuan) was convened in Beijing, consisting of 100 delegates nominated by the emperor and 100 delegates elected by the provincial assemblies. However, the plan to bring about a national parliament on the basis of these t…

Political Parties

(1,817 words)

Author(s): Gottwald, Jörn C. | Sandschneider, Eberhard | Junhua, Zhang
1. The Development of Political Parties in China In China, political parties are a phenomenon of the 20th century. The first parties were founded during the late 19th and early 20th century, most of them during the Revolution of 1911. During this time, China became a Republic and, for the first time, provided an environment in which diverse political parties could flourish. Between 1911 and 1914, there were more than 300 politically active parties (or organizations with characteristics of parties) in China, among these the Chinese Socialist Party ( Zhongguo shehuidang), the Republica…


(1,758 words)

Author(s): Sandschneider, Eberhard | Gottwald, Jörn C.
Motives for political opposition in China can be classified into three groups: 1) power-political motives in the conflicts between various groups within the Chinese Communist Party (CCP); 2) rejection of parts if not the whole of the Communist ideology and the concomitant legitimization of the power monopoly of the CCP; 3) ethical-religious motives such as in the resistance of members of ethnic minorities, for instance the Tibetans and Uyghurs, or religious groups. The CCP, in accordance with it…