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Mons Taburnus

(62 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Massif in the Appennines (highest elevation is Monte Taburno, 1394 m) in Samnium (cf. Vibius Sequester 311 Gelsomino; differently Serv. Aen. 12,715: mons Campaniae) north-west of Caudium (cf. Grattius, Cynegetica 507). The summit region and the north side are bleak and untouched, the south side is fertile; olive growing (Vib. Sequ. l.c.; Verg. Georg. 2,38). Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)


(82 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Campania, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea between Naples (Neapolis [2]) and Herculaneum ( Sebethos: Stat. Silv. 1,2,263; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ΣΕΠΕΙΘΟΣ on coins from Naples: HN 40); modern Fiume della Maddalena or also Sebeto. According to a myth, S.' daughter ( Sebethis nympha: Verg. Aen. 7,734; Colum. 10,134) bore Telon a son, Oebalus [2]. An aedicula to S. is mentioned in the  inscription CIL X 1480. Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Frederiksen, Campania, 1984, 19 (edited and revised by N. Purcell).

Mountain passes

(404 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Way from one region to another across or through a narrow place sketched out by nature (a saddle at a relatively low point of a watershed, water gap of a river flowing across a mountain chain, or between the sea and steeply rising mountains). The modern term 'pass', like the late mediaeval term littera passus (‘document of passage’), derives from the Latin passus, which in mediaeval Latin usage already had the meaning (among others) of  ‘way through or across’. Locally other terms, frequently oriented towards the character of the landscape, …

Mons Massicus

(154 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Mountain range (up to 813 m) of volcanic origin between mons Mefineis (modern Roccamonfina) and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the region of the Aurunci (Ausones) between Latium Adiectum and Campania (cf. Plin. HN 3,59f.), modern Monte Massico. Of great strategic importance (cf. Liv. 22,14; Sil. 7,261 up to 217 BC); the via Appia ran first northwards over the saddle between the MM and mons Mefineis, then after the foundation of the colonia of Sinuessa (295 BC) on the narrow coastal strip, controlled from there, between the MM and the sea (details in [1. 215f.…


(676 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Stratovolcano (eruptions of ash and lava), dormant in ancient times, in Campania (for the ancient forms of the name with a list of all the literary and inscriptional documentation see [6. 33 f., 128-136], modern Vesuvio. The cone-shaped mountain, today 1281 m high, sits in a caldera (Monte Somma; highest peak: Punta del Nasone at 1132 m to the north of V.), which came into being, or was expanded, when the peak of the mountain was blown off during the AD 79 eruption. After a period…

Coastline, changes in

(439 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The course of coastlines and the character of coastal landscapes are constantly being changed by the interplay of eustatic variations in sea level, tectonically caused instances of eruption and subsidence, deposits of sediment from rivers, alluvia from the sea, volcanoes and related bradyseism (e.g. in Puteoli), sea currents, wind, breakers and tides. Bearing this in mind can be important for evaluating particular historical events. Thus, for example, the coastal strip at  Thermop…


(161 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (τὰ Τιφατῖνα ὄρη/ tà Tiphatîna órē). Mountainous region, densely wooded with oak trees (Sil. Pun. 13,219; for the meaning of the name cf. Fest. 503: T. iliceta, 'T. means oak forest'), to the east of Capua, modern Monti di Maddaloni with its highest elevation (604 m) in the modern Monte T. On the western slopes, about 30 stadia (5-6 km) from Capua, there was a temple to Diana Tifatina (Paus. 5,12,3; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Capua E.), on the eastern slopes a temple to Iuppiter Tifatinus (Tab. Peut. 6,4; foundations…

Mons Taburnus

(56 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[English version] Bergmassiv im Appenninus (höchste Erhebung h. Monte Taburno, 1394 m) in Samnium (vgl. Vibius Sequester 311 Gelsomino; anders Serv. Aen. 12,715: mons Campaniae) nordwestl. von Caudium (vgl. Grattius, Cynegetica 507). Die Gipfelregion und die Nordseite sind rauh und wild, die Südseite fruchtbar; Olivenanbau (Vib. Sequ. l.c.; Verg. georg. 2,38). Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)


(330 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[English version] Über- oder Durchgang von einer Landschaft in eine andere an einer von der Natur vorgezeichneten Engstelle (Einsattelung an einem relativ niedrigen Punkt der Wasserscheide, Durchbruchstal eines quer zu einem Bergzug verlaufenden Flusses, zw. Meer und steil aus diesem aufsteigendem Gebirge). Der moderne Begriff P. leitet sich wie der spät-ma. Begriff littera passus (“Durchgangsschein”) vom lat. passus ab, der im mlat. Sprachgebrauch u.a. bereits die Bed. “Durch-, Übergang” hat. Lokal sind auch andere, häufig am Landschaftscharakter ori…

Mons Massicus

(141 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[English version] Gebirgszug (bis 813 m) vulkanischen Ursprungs zw. Mons Mefineis (h. Roccamonfina) und Mare Tyrrhenum im Gebiet der Aurunci (Ausones) zw. Latium Adiectum und Campania (vgl. Plin. nat. 3,59f.), h. Monte Massico. Von großer strategischer Bed. (vgl. Liv. 22,14; Sil. 7,261 zum J. 217 v.Chr.); die Via Appia verlief zunächst nördl. über den Sattel zw. M.M. und Mons Mefineis, nach Gründung der colonia Sinuessa (295 v.Chr.) auf dem von hier aus kontrollierten schmalen Küstenstreifen zw. M.M. und dem Meer (Details bei [1. 215f.])…


(387 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[English version] Der Verlauf der Küstenlinien und die Beschaffenheit der Küstenlandschaften werden durch das Zusammenspiel von eustatischen Meeresspiegelschwankungen, tektonisch bedingten Hebungs- und Senkungserscheinungen, Sedimentablagerungen der Flüsse, Materialanschwemmung von See her, von Vulkanismus und dem damit zusammenhängenden Bradyseismos (z.B. in Puteoli), von Meeresströmungen, Wind, Brandung und Gezeiten ständig verändert. Dies zu berücksichtigen, kann bei der Einschätzung bestimmter…

Saltus Manlianus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The narrow passage of Puerto de Morata in the Sierra de Vicor, south-west of Zaragoza, probably named after the praetor P. Manlius [I 5], who passed through there in 195 BC during the conquest of Hispania citerior under the supreme command of the consul Cato [1] (Liv. 40,39,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 166  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 146 f.


(572 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Pilgrimage Town in Campania, north east of the Vesuvius (Str. 5,4,8; It. Ant. 109,2; Tab. Peut. 6,4); it still bears the same name today. N. lies at the foot of the Appennines, on a broad plain approximately halfway from Capua to Nuceria, on a major traffic artery leading from Etruria to Poseidonia/Paestum, subsequently known as via Popilia. We do not know what part the inhabitants of Chalcis [1] played in its foundation (Sil. Pun. 12,161; Just. Epit. 20,1,1…


(398 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προκόννησος/ Prokónnēssos, Lat. Proconnesus). Largest island of the Propontis, with an area of c. 130 square km, c. 10 km to the northwest of Arctonnesos, present-day Marmara Adası. The name P. is derived from πρόξ/ próx, 'doe' (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 148); Plin. (HN. 5,151) in addition also calls the island Elaphonnesos (derived from ἔλαφος/ élaphos, 'stag', cf. Ἐλαφόνησος/ Elaphónēsos, Schol. ibid.) and Neuris (from νεῦρον/ neûron, 'sinew, bow-string'). EM s. v. Προικόννησος/ Proikónnēsos offers a derivation from προΐξ/ proḯx, 'gift' (namely 'of marble'); a…


(364 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προποντίς; Propontís). A sea between the Pontos Euxeinos (Black Sea) in the northeast (Bosporus [1]) and the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean) in the southwest (Hellespontus), between Thrace in the north and Mysia in the south, greatest length (from Callipolis to Nicomedia) 252 km, greatest breadth 74 km, modern Sea of Marmara. The P. was brought into existence by an early quaternary rift. The largest part of the area of the sea ( c. 11,500 km2) is formed by an area of land lowered 200 m, on which the islands perch (cf. the list of the islands in Plin. HN 5…


(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …


(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…


(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…


(169 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
(Ὄνειον/ Óneion, Ὄνεια ὄρη/ Óneia órē). [German version] [1] Limestone ridge in the southern part of the Isthmus of Corinth A strategically significant limestone ridge in the southern part of the Isthmus of Corinth, measuring c. 8 km in length and up to 584 m in height (Thuc. 4,44,4; Xen. Hell. 6,5,51ff.; 7,1,15; 41; 2,5; Pol. 2,52,5; Plut. Cleomenes 20,1; Polyaenus Strat. 2,3; 3,9), today again called O. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 82  E. Meyer, s.v. O. (1), RE 18, 438-440. [German version] [2] Mountainous region between Geraneia and Cithaeron Megarian m…

Climate, Environmental change

(804 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] I. General points Climate is the sum of the weather phenomena occurring in a given region over longer periods of time. In combination with the nature of the soil, the water resources and other natural conditions it determines the possibility of human existence. Natural irregularities lead to differences in the energy radiation on to the earth's surface, the circulation of air masses and therefore the distribution of moisture. Changes affect in particular those areas on the limits of …
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