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Propontis

(364 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προποντίς; Propontís). A sea between the Pontos Euxeinos (Black Sea) in the northeast (Bosporus [1]) and the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean) in the southwest (Hellespontus), between Thrace in the north and Mysia in the south, greatest length (from Callipolis to Nicomedia) 252 km, greatest breadth 74 km, modern Sea of Marmara. The P. was brought into existence by an early quaternary rift. The largest part of the area of the sea ( c. 11,500 km2) is formed by an area of land lowered 200 m, on which the islands perch (cf. the list of the islands in Plin. HN 5…

Tifata

(161 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (τὰ Τιφατῖνα ὄρη/ tà Tiphatîna órē). Mountainous region, densely wooded with oak trees (Sil. Pun. 13,219; for the meaning of the name cf. Fest. 503: T. iliceta, 'T. means oak forest'), to the east of Capua, modern Monti di Maddaloni with its highest elevation (604 m) in the modern Monte T. On the western slopes, about 30 stadia (5-6 km) from Capua, there was a temple to Diana Tifatina (Paus. 5,12,3; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Capua E.), on the eastern slopes a temple to Iuppiter Tifatinus (Tab. Peut. 6,4; foundations…

Sabelli

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] S. is not, as Strabo's source ( cf.  Str. 5,4,12) implies, a diminutive of Sabini , but is derived from the same root as Samnites , and from the time of Varro onwards is a term for them. For the modern linguistic use of S., see Oscan-Umbrian. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. T. Salmon, Samnium and the Samnites, 1967.

Climate, Environmental change

(804 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] I. General points Climate is the sum of the weather phenomena occurring in a given region over longer periods of time. In combination with the nature of the soil, the water resources and other natural conditions it determines the possibility of human existence. Natural irregularities lead to differences in the energy radiation on to the earth's surface, the circulation of air masses and therefore the distribution of moisture. Changes affect in particular those areas on the limits of …

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Saltus Manlianus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The narrow passage of Puerto de Morata in the Sierra de Vicor, south-west of Zaragoza, probably named after the praetor P. Manlius [I 5], who passed through there in 195 BC during the conquest of Hispania citerior under the supreme command of the consul Cato [1] (Liv. 40,39,2). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 166  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 146 f.

Oneum

(169 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
(Ὄνειον/ Óneion, Ὄνεια ὄρη/ Óneia órē). [German version] [1] Limestone ridge in the southern part of the Isthmus of Corinth A strategically significant limestone ridge in the southern part of the Isthmus of Corinth, measuring c. 8 km in length and up to 584 m in height (Thuc. 4,44,4; Xen. Hell. 6,5,51ff.; 7,1,15; 41; 2,5; Pol. 2,52,5; Plut. Cleomenes 20,1; Polyaenus Strat. 2,3; 3,9), today again called O. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 82  E. Meyer, s.v. O. (1), RE 18, 438-440. [German version] [2] Mountainous region between Geraneia and Cithaeron Megarian m…

Proconnesus

(398 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προκόννησος/ Prokónnēssos, Lat. Proconnesus). Largest island of the Propontis, with an area of c. 130 square km, c. 10 km to the northwest of Arctonnesos, present-day Marmara Adası. The name P. is derived from πρόξ/ próx, 'doe' (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 148); Plin. (HN. 5,151) in addition also calls the island Elaphonnesos (derived from ἔλαφος/ élaphos, 'stag', cf. Ἐλαφόνησος/ Elaphónēsos, Schol. ibid.) and Neuris (from νεῦρον/ neûron, 'sinew, bow-string'). EM s. v. Προικόννησος/ Proikónnēsos offers a derivation from προΐξ/ proḯx, 'gift' (namely 'of marble'); a…

Mountain passes

(404 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Way from one region to another across or through a narrow place sketched out by nature (a saddle at a relatively low point of a watershed, water gap of a river flowing across a mountain chain, or between the sea and steeply rising mountains). The modern term 'pass', like the late mediaeval term littera passus (‘document of passage’), derives from the Latin passus, which in mediaeval Latin usage already had the meaning (among others) of  ‘way through or across’. Locally other terms, frequently oriented towards the character of the landscape, …

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Nola

(572 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Pilgrimage Town in Campania, north east of the Vesuvius (Str. 5,4,8; It. Ant. 109,2; Tab. Peut. 6,4); it still bears the same name today. N. lies at the foot of the Appennines, on a broad plain approximately halfway from Capua to Nuceria, on a major traffic artery leading from Etruria to Poseidonia/Paestum, subsequently known as via Popilia. We do not know what part the inhabitants of Chalcis [1] played in its foundation (Sil. Pun. 12,161; Just. Epit. 20,1,1…

Salluvii

(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…

Coastline, changes in

(439 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] The course of coastlines and the character of coastal landscapes are constantly being changed by the interplay of eustatic variations in sea level, tectonically caused instances of eruption and subsidence, deposits of sediment from rivers, alluvia from the sea, volcanoes and related bradyseism (e.g. in Puteoli), sea currents, wind, breakers and tides. Bearing this in mind can be important for evaluating particular historical events. Thus, for example, the coastal strip at  Thermop…

Sebethus

(82 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Campania, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea between Naples (Neapolis [2]) and Herculaneum ( Sebethos: Stat. Silv. 1,2,263; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ΣΕΠΕΙΘΟΣ on coins from Naples: HN 40); modern Fiume della Maddalena or also Sebeto. According to a myth, S.' daughter ( Sebethis nympha: Verg. Aen. 7,734; Colum. 10,134) bore Telon a son, Oebalus [2]. An aedicula to S. is mentioned in the  inscription CIL X 1480. Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography M. Frederiksen, Campania, 1984, 19 (edited and revised by N. Purcell).

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Prote

(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …

Saii

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Thracian tribe (Σάϊοι/ Sáïoi). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aegeis across from Samothrace (cf. Archil. fr. 6 Diehl; Str. 10,2,17; 12,3,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. Saii (1), RE 1 A, 1757  T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija a n trakijskite plemena do 3. v.pr.n.e., 1983, 51, 101. [German version] [2] Celtic tribe Celtic tribe, later the name of its main city, present-day Sées, Dépt. Orne (Notitia Galliarum 2,6: civitas Saiorum; Commentarii notarum Tironianarum 87,63; cf. CIL XIII 630),…

Mons Taburnus

(62 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Massif in the Appennines (highest elevation is Monte Taburno, 1394 m) in Samnium (cf. Vibius Sequester 311 Gelsomino; differently Serv. Aen. 12,715: mons Campaniae) north-west of Caudium (cf. Grattius, Cynegetica 507). The summit region and the north side are bleak and untouched, the south side is fertile; olive growing (Vib. Sequ. l.c.; Verg. Georg. 2,38). Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Mons Massicus

(154 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Mountain range (up to 813 m) of volcanic origin between mons Mefineis (modern Roccamonfina) and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the region of the Aurunci (Ausones) between Latium Adiectum and Campania (cf. Plin. HN 3,59f.), modern Monte Massico. Of great strategic importance (cf. Liv. 22,14; Sil. 7,261 up to 217 BC); the via Appia ran first northwards over the saddle between the MM and mons Mefineis, then after the foundation of the colonia of Sinuessa (295 BC) on the narrow coastal strip, controlled from there, between the MM and the sea (details in [1. 215f.…
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