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Syntomon

(70 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (σύντομον). Das s. steht als byz. liturgische Dichtung zw. kontákion zum kanṓn [2], ohne jedoch deren Beliebtheit erreicht zu haben. Seine vier bis neun Strophen werden in der Liturgie der orthodoxen Kirche zw. Psalmverse eingeschoben, weshalb das s. auch stichērón (στιχηρόν) genannt wird. Verm. geht es auf den Meloden Kyprianos (1. H. des 8. Jh.) zurück. Hymnos VI. Savvidis, Kyriakos Bibliography J. Szövérffy, A Guide to Byzantine Hymnography ..., 1979.

Tarasios

(113 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Ταράσιος). Patriarch von Konstantinopolis (ca. 730-806 n. Chr.), von adliger Herkunft, Sekretär der Kaiserin Irene, die ihn im Rahmen ihrer Restaurationsbemühungen um den Bilderkult 784 zum Patriarchen wählen ließ. Die von ihm zur Lösung des Bilderstreits (Syrische Dynastie) einberufene Synode ( sýnodos [2]) in Nikaia konnte 787 in einem zweiten Anlauf die Wiederherstellung des Bilderkultes beschließen. Auf ihn gehen die auf der Synode verlesenen Beschlüsse zurück, die er bereits 754 verfaßt hatte. Savvidis, Kyriakos Bibliography Ed.: PG 98, 1424-1428 …

Sophronios

(190 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Σωφρόνιος). Patriarch von Jerusalem (634-638), griech.-byz. Heiliger, Dichter und Schriftsteller. S. stammte wahrscheinlich aus Damaskos und lehrte Rhet. Er wurde Mönch in Palaestina und unternahm mit seinem Freund Iohannes [29] Moschos Reisen zu den dortigen Mönchssiedlungen. Als standhafter Gegner des Monotheletismus versuchte er im J. 633 erfolglos, Kyros von Phasis, den Patriarchen von Alexandreia [1], davon abzubringen. S. konnte sich mit dem Patriarchen von Konstantinopoli…

Tabor

(144 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Ταβώρ). Konisch zulaufender Berg mit ausladendem Gipfelplateau (ca. 1200 × 400 m) in der Jesreel-Ebene in Israel. Nach Jos 19,22 grenzten an den T. die Stammesgebiete von Sebulon, Assachar und Naftali. In den biblischen Schriften werden keine Hinweise auf eine kultische Funktion des Bergs gegeben. Es besteht auch kein Zusammenhang zum Kult des rhodischen Gottes Zeus Atabyrios ([1]; Rhodos). Eisenzeitliche Besiedlung konnte nachgewiesen werden [2], die später von röm. und byz. Si…

Šīrīn

(62 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
Savvidis, Kyriakos [English version] [1] persische Märtyrerin, gest. 599 (Σιρή). Persische Märtyrerin, † 559 n. Chr. S. war die Tochter eines angesehenen pers. Magiers, die nach ihrer Konversion zum Christentum unter dem Perserkönig Chosroes [5] I. öffentlich durch Erhängen hingerichtet wurde. Bibliography P. Devos, Saint Šīrīn Martyr Khosrau Ier Avrošarvan, in: Analecta Bollandiana 64, 1946, 87-131. [English version] [2] s. Schirin s. Schirin

Synodikon

(94 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (Συνοδικόν). Liturgisches Formular in der orthodoxen Kirche. Das S. entstand in der Zeit des Bilderstreits 843 n. Chr. auf Initiative des Methodios, des Patriarchen von Konstantinopolis als Dokument des Sieges des Patriarchats über die Ikonoklasten (Syrische Dynastie). Es führt die Trad. der Diptychen fort. Anf. des 11. Jh. kam dem S. die allgemeinere Funktion eines liturgischen Formulars zu, das neben den verurteilten Häresien eine Kommemorationsliste der Kaiser und Patriarchen (in der Prov. auch der Metropoliten) enthielt. Savvidis, Kyriakos Bibliograp…

Troparion

(124 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
[English version] (τροπάριον, von τρόπος/ trópos in der Bed. “Tonart, Ton”). Urspr. eine kurze Strophe in freier rhythmischer byz. Prosa mit Bittcharakter, in seiner Melodie der Psalmodie ähnelnd. Das t. stand am Anfang der byz. Hymnographie (Hymnos IV.) und wurde zunächst zu jedem Psalmvers antiphonisch gesungen. Ab dem 5. Jh. wurde es erweitert und in den Schluß des Psalms (zw. die 3-6 letzten Verse) integriert. Es fand auch Eingang in kontákion und kanṓn [2]. Meist anon. überl., erfährt das t. erst ab dem 11./12. Jh. (Sophronios von Jerusalem) eine einheitliche liturgi…

Synaxarion

(113 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos
(συναξάριον). [English version] [1] Kurzvita Kurzvita oder enkomiastische Notiz in den Menäen im órthros (ὄρθρος, “Morgengottesdienst”) der orthodoxen Kirche zw. der 6. und 7. Ode des Kanons [2], der mit dem s. den Gottesdienst des jeweiligen Tagesheiligen oder Festes prägt. Aufbau: Monatsdatum, Epigramm in iambischen Versen, Nennung des Heiligen, des Festes, Hexameter auf Datum und Namen, histor. Notiz, Erwähnung der Kirche, die seiner gedenkt, Vita des Heiligen. Savvidis, Kyriakos [English version] [2] Buch mit Kurzviten Buch, das die synaxária enthält (s. auch Menologi…

Chronicon paschale

(172 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτομὴ χρόνων; Epitomè chrónōn). The chronicon paschale (also chronicon Alexandrinum, chronicon Constantinopolitanum, Fasti Siculi, according to where the particular codex was discovered) was written by a cleric between 631 and 641 at the instigation of the patriarch  Sergius. In its introduction, the ‘Easter Chronicle contains explanations of the Easter cycle. The chronology originally went from Adam to the year 629, but the record breaks off after 628. The chronicler is an eyewitness to ev…

Armenians, Armenian literature

(347 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] The A. refer to themselves as hayk', while the term A. is used by the Persians (Behistun inscription) and the Greeks (Herodotus and Xenophon). In the 6th cent. BC, the A. immigrated and intermixed with the autochthonous Urartians. After enduring Median, Persian, Macedonian and Seleucid domination, the A. King Artashes won the fight for independence in AD 189. Following the Christianization of the country, Armenian literature (AL) emerged in the early 5th cent., with Maštoc's ( Mesrop in…

Book of Letters

(107 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Armenian collection of important theological letters, documenting the history of the Armenian church and its relations with neighbouring churches (Syria, Georgia, Byzantium), such as the separation of the Georgian church from the Armenian in c. 600. The Book of Letters is divided into three chronological phases: 5th-7th, 8th-11th and 11th-13th cents.  Byzantium;  Georgia;  Syria Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Girk T̀`ġtoc`, 1901 E. Ter-Minassiantz, Die armen. Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syr. Kirchen. Bis zum Ende des 13.Jh.…

Sinai

(194 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Σινᾶ/ Sinâ, Σινά/ Siná, Σεινά/ Seiná, later also Σιναΐ/ Sinaḯ, Latin Sina; Hebrew sīnay). Mountain in the wilderness of the same name, where the Covenant between Yahweh and Israel was made. S. is primarily attested in the Old Testament; in the New Testament Σινᾶ occurs only in Acts 7,30 and 38 and Gal 4,2; the etymology is debatable. Presumably S. is derived from the Hebrew root sny, 'shine' [1. 52033]. S. often occurs with the later additions 'Mount', 'Desert'. Euseb. On. 172,9 f. distinguished S. from Mount Horeb (Χωρήβ/ Chōrḗb), for Jerome (ibid. 173,15 f.) the …

Eznik of Kolp

(246 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Kołp). Pupil of  Mesrop. His student colleague Koriwn gives some details about E.'s biography in the Vita of Mesrop. According to him, in around AD 406 E. goes to  Edessa [2] (= Urfa) on behalf of his teacher and Katholikos  Sahak in order to learn Syriac and to translate works by the Syrian church fathers into Armenian. Together with Koriwn he brought around 435 Greek biblical manuscripts, manuscripts by the church fathers, and the Acts of the Synods of  Nicaea and  Ephesus from…

Potamiaena

(117 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ποταμιαίνα/ Potamiaína). Martyr (died c. AD 360; feast 7 or 28 June). Pupil of Origenes [1] in Alexandria. According to an account by Eusebius [7] (Eus. HE 6,4) she suffered martyrdom under Septimius Severus (193-211). She converted the soldier Basileides who escorted her to her execution. Together with her mother Marcella she was executed by having hot pitch poured over her. After three days she is supposed to have appeared to Basileides, who was arrested for his conversion and then also martyred. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henscheniu…

Mesrop

(287 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Known as Maštoc in the older MSS and in the vita written by his student Koriwn. His date of birth ( c. AD 360/364) and his descent from the influential family of the Mamikonians are uncertain. Born in Katzikk in the Armenian province of Tarawn, M. received a Hellenic education. After military service under the Armenian king - either Chosrov III ( Chosroes [4]) or his lieutenant Arawan - in Vagharshapat, he became a secretary at the Armenian royal court between 385 and 389. Between 390 and 395, the Armenian Patriarch Sahak [Isaac] the Great ( c. 457-438) made him a monk. Af…

Iberians

(89 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἴβηροι/ Íbēroi, Ἴβηρες/ Íbēres). I. and Iberia (Ἰβηρία/ Ibēría), as terms for the inhabitants and country of East Georgia, occur only in Graeco-Roman and Byzantine sources; possibly etymologically related to virkʿ (Armenian) or Sáspeires (Σάσπειρες, Hdt. 4,37; 40) [1. 146]. Iberia was bordered in the north by  Sarmatia, in the west by  Colchis, in the south by Greater Armenia ( Armenia) and in the east by  Albania [1] (Ptol. 5,10,1f.). Armenia;  Georgia, Georgians;  Georgian Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography 1 O. Lordkipanidse, Archäologie in Geor…

Kontakion

(198 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον; kontákion, kondákion; from κοντός, ‘parchment roll’). Name given in later times to a genre of Byzantine hymns documented first in the 6th cent. AD. The kontakion consists of 18 to 24 metrically equal stanzas (so-called oíkoi, οἶκοι), preceded by the metrically differing prooemium ( koukoúlion, κουκούλιον). The individual stanzas are connected by acrostichs ( Acrostich) and have a common refrain (the ephýmnion or akroteleútion, ἐφύμνιον, ἀκροτελεύτιον). Kontakia are related to the Syrian madraša ( Ephrem Syrus), …

Elishē

(118 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ełišē). Author of a history of the Vardanids and the Armenian wars in the Armenian language, describing the uprising of the Armenian people under the leadership of Vardan Mamikonyan against the Sassanid occupation forces in AD 450/1. However, E. did not himself witness the historical events which he describes, but is likely to have lived in the 6th cent. AD. It was his aim to provide a martyrological anchor for the foundation of the Armenian church.  Armenia;  Armenians, Armenian literature;  Sassanids Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography E. Ter-Minassjan, Va…

Syntomon

(90 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (σύντομον; sýntomon). As a specimen of Byzantine liturgical poetry the s. lies between the kontákion and the kanṓn [2], but without having achieved their popularity. In the liturgy of the Orthodox Church its four to nine strophes are inserted between the verses of psalms, and for this reason a s. is also called a stichērón (στιχηρόν). Presumably it can be traced to the poet and hymnographer Kyprianos (1st half of the 8th cent.). Hymn IV. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Szövérffy, A Guide to Byzantine Hymnography ..., 1979.

Šīrīn

(66 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) [German version] [1] Persian martyr, died in 599 (Σιρή; Sirḗ). Persian martyr, died 559 AD. S. was the daughter of a respected Persian magus, who after her conversion to Christianity was publicly executed by hanging under the Persian king Chosroes [5] I. Bibliography P. Devos, Saint Šīrīn Martyr Khosrau Ier Avrošarvan, in: Analecta Bollandiana 64, 1946, 87-131. [German version] [2] see Schirin See Shirin.
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