Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schäfer, Alfred" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schäfer, Alfred" )' returned 8 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Voluntary Associations

(5,190 words)

Author(s): Häusler, Michael | Schäfer, Alfred | Kuhlemann, Frank-Michael | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Haering, Stephan | Et al.
[German Version] I. History 1. Terminology. The use of the term “association” to denote the formal union of persons and bodies has been common since the 19th century, especially through its application in the legal area. Associations were and are also called societies, unions, corporations, cooperatives, federations, groups, initiatives, movements etc. Modern unions are defined as the voluntary union of originally separate forces to achieve a common aim. By their structural features of free choice and a common aim, they are essentially different…


(277 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[German Version] I Ecstatic processions involving gods, muses, composite beings, or a Dionysiac retinue were called thiasoi. II The usual Greek term for a cultic association was thiasos or sometimes simply koinon. The membership and voluntary organizational form of such associations resembled that of the voluntary associations (I, 2) in the Roman world; worshipers of Dionysus were prominent in such organizations. Dionysiac performers called technitai were likewise organized into thiasoi. But a Dionysiac association could also be called a bakcheion or speira; there were regio…

Right of Association

(510 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[German Version] I. Laws of association decreed in the interest of the Roman state often relate to the city of Rome. It is not always possible to gather from the tradition how far the leges de collegiis were also binding in the rest of Italy and the provinces. In the Greek-speaking East in particular, there was probably a diversity of local legal standards; therefore, Roman civic regulations cannot be transferred without qualification. However, in conflicts between the interests of associations and the state, or when revenues were…


(1,664 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred | Schäfer, Daniel (Cologne)
Schäfer, Alfred [German version] A. Introduction (CT) An accurate account of the reception history of ancient obstetrics is difficult to come by since crucial aspects of obstetric practice were never recorded or were only mentioned in passing. Until well into modern times, normal childbirth was considered almost exclusively a female domain that generally saw very little medical involvement at all. For that reason, the relevant works by ancient authors ( Corpus Hippocraticum, Herophilus, Celsus, Philumenus, Soranus) whose reception history, by contrast, is fairly we…


(890 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[German version] I. Preliminary comment Acrobats, tumblers, fools, jesters and magicians appeared as entertainers before audiences in town and country. These specialists, who earned their living with their performances, either had a fixed abode or were travellers in the Graeco-Roman world. Their presentations were geared towards audience expectations and often reflected societal conventions, their counter-images or merely wishful thinking. Schäfer, Alfred II. Specialists [German version] A. Jugglers In the Phaeacian section of the ‘Odyssey’ (Hom. Od. 8,370-379;   Phaíakes…


(189 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[German version] (Greek νᾶν[ν]ος/ nân[n]os; Lat. pumilio, pumilus). Egyptian art has handed down a rich and varied image of the dwarf: in Egyptian popular belief dwarf gods such as Ptah-Pataikos (  pátaikoi ) and  Bes, the friend of children and women, (see Addenda; cf.  Monsters I) had been represented as helpful powers and omnipresent in the form of  amulets. In human daily life the dwarf took on the tasks of a craftsman and assisted in looking after children and in personal hygiene. Most illustrations show dwarves who, like cripples, served as entertainment for their masters. The image…


(172 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[English version] (griech. νᾶν[ν]ος/ nán[n]os; lat. pumilio, pumilus). Die ägypt. Kunst überliefert ein reiches und vielseitiges Bild des Z.: Im ägypt. Volksglauben waren Zwerggötter wie Ptah-Pataikos ( pátaikoi ) und der Kinder- und Frauenfreund Bes (s. Nachträge; vgl. Mischwesen I.) als helfende Mächte vertreten und in Form von Amuletten allgegenwärtig. Im menschlichen Alltag übernahm der Z. die Aufgaben eines Handwerkers und war bei der Betreuung von Kindern und der Körperpflege behilflich. Die meiste…


(853 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[English version] I. Vorbemerkung Akrobaten, Gaukler, Narren, Possenreißer und Zauberer traten in Stadt und Land vor das Publikum, um es zu unterhalten. Diese Spezialisten, die sich mit ihren Aufführungen den Lebensunterhalt verdienten, waren entweder fest ansässig oder fahrendes Volk der griech.-röm. Welt. Die Darbietungen richteten sich nach den Erwartungen der Zuschauer und reflektierten mitunter gesellschaftliche Normen, deren Gegenbilder oder auch Wunschvorstellungen. Schäfer, Alfred II. Spezialisten [English version] A. Jongleure In der Phaiakengesch. der ‘…