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(1,664 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred | Schäfer, Daniel (Cologne)
Schäfer, Alfred [German version] A. Introduction (CT) An accurate account of the reception history of ancient obstetrics is difficult to come by since crucial aspects of obstetric practice were never recorded or were only mentioned in passing. Until well into modern times, normal childbirth was considered almost exclusively a female domain that generally saw very little medical involvement at all. For that reason, the relevant works by ancient authors ( Corpus Hippocraticum, Herophilus, Celsus, Philumenus, Soranus) whose reception history, by contrast, is fairly we…


(890 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[German version] I. Preliminary comment Acrobats, tumblers, fools, jesters and magicians appeared as entertainers before audiences in town and country. These specialists, who earned their living with their performances, either had a fixed abode or were travellers in the Graeco-Roman world. Their presentations were geared towards audience expectations and often reflected societal conventions, their counter-images or merely wishful thinking. Schäfer, Alfred II. Specialists [German version] A. Jugglers In the Phaeacian section of the ‘Odyssey’ (Hom. Od. 8,370-379;   Phaíakes…


(189 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Alfred
[German version] (Greek νᾶν[ν]ος/ nân[n]os; Lat. pumilio, pumilus). Egyptian art has handed down a rich and varied image of the dwarf: in Egyptian popular belief dwarf gods such as Ptah-Pataikos (  pátaikoi ) and  Bes, the friend of children and women, (see Addenda; cf.  Monsters I) had been represented as helpful powers and omnipresent in the form of  amulets. In human daily life the dwarf took on the tasks of a craftsman and assisted in looking after children and in personal hygiene. Most illustrations show dwarves who, like cripples, served as entertainment for their masters. The image…