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Industrial Policy

(1,138 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
The strategies and goals of Chinese industrial policy have changed dramatically over the last hundred years. Since the beginning of the reforms in 1978, and especially since the beginning of the 1990s, the set of economic and political tools used have increasingly been aligned with those of other industrial nations. The first attempts to coordinate policy in mining, smelting, and the textile industry already began to appear along China's east coast and in Manchuria in the early 19th century. Because of internal and external crises, the Qing d…

Insurance Sector

(1,103 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Doris | Schüller, Margot
1. People's Republic of China The new government of the People's Republic established the People's Insurance Company of China (PICC) as early as 1949. The company was responsible for all insurance business domestic and abroad. It was at first subordinated to the People's Bank of China (PBoC) and was later put under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance in 1952. After 1958, with the completion of socialist restructuring, the view took hold that insurances were obsolete. For this reason, the PICC…

Liaoning

(1,663 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
Liao Shenyang 100 counties, 31 cities 42.71 million inhabitants 145,900 km² 293 inhabitants per km² Liaoning in northeastern China is the smallest of the three provinces that used to form Manchuria . In the northeast, Liaoning borders on Jilin, in the north on Inner Mongolia, in the west on Hebei, and in the east on North Korea. To its south lies the Bohai Gulf, to the southeast, the Yellow Sea. The coastal length (including islands) is roughly 2900 km. The province, which is shaped like a horseshoe, can be separated into three regions. In the east, hills stretch from the …

Service Sector

(835 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
In general, the term "services" refers to intangibles that cannot be transferred, stored, or transported. Typical services are trade, transport, bank and insurance services, hotel and catering services, cleaning, services rendered by hair dressers and other professionals, by cultural institutions and the mass media, work in research, as well as services rendered in public security, education, and health. During economic growth, the proportion of people employed in the service sector increases in…

Shenyang

(479 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
Shenyang is the capital of the province of Liaoning , as well as the economic and cultural center of northeastern China. The city is eminent both as a regional transport hub and as a center for banking. Situated along the northern banks of the river Hun He in the Liao He plain. The administrative territory of the city comprises nine urban districts and two rural counties, in which 9 percent of Shenyang's 6.75 million inhabitants (2006: 7.04 million) were registered in 1998. In its 2000 years of history, Shenyang gained particular significance when the northern nomad peoples s…

Stock Markets

(1,860 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Doris | Soong, Eric Sandy | Schüller, Margot
1. People's Republic of China When it seized power in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) outlawed trading in securities in Shanghai. The smaller stock markets in Beijing and Tianjin were allowed to continue their operations, although with interruptions, until 1952. Despite ideological reservations, the new government issued government bonds in order to improve its budgetary situation until 1959, but then halted all securities transactions. A gradual rebuilding of the securities markets, initiate…

Banking

(2,447 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Doris | Schüller, Margot
1. People's Republic of China After the founding of the People's Republic, the banking system was transformed into a mono-banking system as part of the process of socialist transformation. At its center stood the People's Bank of China (PBoC) that had been established in 1948 already. Until 1970 the PBoC was subordinate to the State Council and between 1970 and 1978 to the Ministry of Finance. By 1955 all private credit institutions established prior to 1949 were either liquidated or integrated into …

Dalian

(505 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
Dalian is located at the southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in the province of Liaoning. After the provincial capital of Shenyang , Dalian is the second largest (2006: 5.72 million inhabitants) and economically most important city (share of provincial GDP in 1998: 24%). During the 1970s, the cities of Lüshun (also known as Port Arthur) and Dalian were merged. Initially the new city was named Lüda, but renamed Dalian in 1981. Today, Lüshun is an urban district of Dalian. Under different nam…

Development Aid

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
Development aid or, more generally, development cooperation is understood as a transfer of financial and technical aid from industrial to developing countries, which generally takes the form of loans at reduced interest rates and non-repayable services to reach certain development targets. The development cooperation between China and most Western industrial countries began at a bilateral level with the reestablishment of diplomatic relations in the 1970s. Only in the early 1950s did China recei…

Economic Planning

(1,695 words)

Author(s): Schüller, Margot
(State) economic planning has had a particularly important function in modern China. However, already in traditional China, the completion of extensive water engineering and transport projects required medium- and long-term planning activities of the central government, although those were not comparable to modern state economic planning. First attempts at the latter were made during the 1930s at the local level, namely in the form of the ten-year plan developed by the warlord Yan Xishan for the…