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Charites (Graces)

(602 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Χάριτες; Chárites). Group of goddesses who embody beauty, happiness and abundance. They appear for the first time in Homer, where their number, like that of the Muses is ambiguous; it is however clear that more than one existed and that not all were of the same age. Hera promises Hypnos that she will give him as his wife Pasithee, one of the younger Charites, whom he desires (Hom. Il. 14,267-276). In Il. 18,382f. one Charis is also the wife of Hephaestus, who is actually married t…

Daphnephoria

(388 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Δαφνηφορία; Daphnēphoría). A ritual carried out everywhere Apollo bore the epithet daphnēphóros (‘branch wearer’) (e.g. IG IX 2, 1027). Only the Theban ritual has been verified; the sources are Pindar, Pr…

Aedon

(137 words)

Athamas

(357 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀθάμας; Athámas). Son of the elder  Aeolus and Enarete, born in Thessaly (Apollod. 1,51), ruled in Halus and Orchomenus and was married to Nephele, Cadmus' daughter  Ino and Hypseus' daughter Themisto. The preserved myth stems at least partly from lost plays of Aeschylus (TrGF 3.1-4), Soph. (TrGF 4.1-10; 721-723) and Eur. (TGF 398-427; 819-838). Since the curse on A.'s house is mentioned in Hdt. 7,197, one can assume that the myth came from northern Greece to Athens during the time of the Persian Wars.…

Boeotus

(326 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Βοιωτός; Boiōtós). Ancestor of the Boeoti, defies precise identification. Only two genealogies connect him to the region that bears his name. According to Hellanicus (FGrH 4F51) and others [1], he was the son of Poseidon and Arne (who gave her name to the original homeland of the Boeoti). In Paus. (9,1,1) B. is the son of Itonus and Melanippe. One of the two is probably father of Onchestus (Hes. fr. 219 M-W). The myth passed down to us seems to go back no further than two lost pla…

Ares

(1,791 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἄρης; Árēs). [German version] A. Genealogy Son of Zeus and Hera (Hes. Theog. 921-923; Homer [1], cf. Apollod. 1,13). Forms the connection, together with his sisters Eilithyia and Hebe, of the divine embodiment of the beginning, high point and often violent end of life. Eris, the daughter of Zeus and Hera, is another of A.'s sisters (Hom. Il. 4,440 f.), but Hesiod states (Theog. 225) that she is the daughter of Nyx. Zeus calls A. the most hated of the Olympians (Hom. Il. 5,890) and blames his uncontrollable and relentless spirit on his mother Hera (Hom. Il. 5,892 f.). Schachter, Albert (Mon…

Amphion

(378 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀμφίων; Amphíōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and of Antiope Son of Zeus and of Antiope, daughter of Asopus, twin brother of Zethus (Hom. Od. 11,260-265). He built a wall around Thebes, by enchanting the stones with his lyre-playing (Hes. fr. 182 M-W). A. married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus (Hes. fr. 183). After the death of their children A. attacked the temple of Apollo and was killed by Apollo's arrows (Hyg. Fab. 9). Ovid (Met. 6,271 f.) has him commit suicide, according to Lucian (Salt. 41) he goes insane (Epos Minyas EpGF). Epopeus of Sicyon together…

Amphiaraus

(262 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀμφιάραος; Amphiáraos). Argive seer. Although he knew that the expedition of the Seven against Thebes was doomed to failure, he had to acquiesce to the judgement of his wife Eriphyle, who had been bribed by Polyneices with the necklace of Harmonia. According to Homer …

Abas

(302 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄβας). [German version] [1] Figure from Myth of the Peloponnese and central Greece Myth of the Peloponnese and central Greece: a) Argus. Son of Lynceus and Hypermestra. By Aglaea, daughter of Mantineus, father of the twins Acrisius and Proetus (Apollod. 2,24; Hes. fr. 129 M-W; cf. Paus. 2,16,2; 10,35,1) and Idomene, mother of Bias and Melampus by Amythaon (Apollod. 2,24). Lynceus gave A. the shield, consecrated by Danaus to Hera, and for whose festival he had established the agon ἄσπις ἐν Ἄργει (Hyg. Fab. 1…

Actaeon

(297 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀκταίων; Aktaíōn). a) Theban: son of Aristaeus, son of Apollo and Cyrene, and Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia (Hes. fr. 217 A; Eur. Bacch. 230). b) Attica: mythical king and eponym of Attica (Str. 9,1,18; Paus. 1,2,6: Actaeus). Variants of a): 1. A. rapes Semele; consequently Zeus sends Artemis to set A.'s dogs on him. A. is torn to pieces. (Hes. fr. 217, cf. 346; Stesich. fr. 236 PMG; Acusilaus FGrH 2 F 33; Apollod. 3,31). 2. A. is killed, because he boasts that he is a …

Alcmaeon

(821 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Ἀλκμαίων; Alkmaíōn). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: son of Amphiaraus Son of Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle (Apollod. 3,81; Hes. fr. 198 M-W, cf. 197; traditions, see [1; 2]). He avenged his father with his younger brother Amphilochus by murdering Eriphyle. A. went insane and wandered erratically through the Peloponnese and north-western Greece (Eur. TGF 65, 87). In Psophis he was healed by Phegeus, and married his daughter Arsinoe, to whom he gave Eriphyle's ill-fated necklace and veil. The land bec…

Aëdon

(139 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Ἀηδών). Tochter des Pandareos, wollte aus Eifersucht auf Niobe ihren ältesten Neffen umbringen. Sie tötete aber aus Versehen ihren und Zethos' Sohn Itylos/Itys und wurde in eine Nachtigall verwandelt (Hom. Od. 19,518-523) [1]. Thebanische Version der Erzählung von Prokne und Philomela: Hes. erg. 568 und Sappho fr. 130 V; att. Version: Soph. Tereus: TrGF 4 p. 435-437 und Apollod. 3,193 [2]. Ant. Lib. 11 verlegt die Gesch. nach Ephesos. A. bezeichnet die personifizierte Nachtigall…

Aristaios

(660 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Folkerts, Menso (München)
(Αρισταιο̃ς). [English version] [1] griech. ländliche Gottheit Ländliche Gottheit, die mit Schafen, dem Auffinden von Olivenöl und Honig, Jagen, Heilen, Weissagen und dem Beenden einer Dürreperiode auf Keos verbunden ist (vgl. Apoll. Rhod. 2,500 ff.). Lit. bekannt ist er dadurch, daß seine Bienen starben, weil er …

Abas

(302 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄβας). [English version] [1] Figur pelop. und zentralgriech. Mythen Mythos der Peloponnes und Zentralgriechenlands: a) Argos. Sohn des Lynkeus und der Hypermestra. …

Charites

(544 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Χάριτες). Gruppe von Göttinnen, die Schönheit, Heiterkeit und Überfluß verkörpern. Sie erscheinen zum ersten Mal bei Homer, wo ihre Zahl wie die der Musen nicht eindeutig ist; es ist jedoch klar, daß mehr als eine existierte und nicht alle gleich alt waren. Hera verspricht Hypnos, ihm Pasithee, eine der jüngeren Ch., die er begehrt, zur Frau zu geben (Hom. Il. 14,267-276). In Il. 18,382f. ist eine Ch. auch Frau des Hephaistos, der in der Odyssee ja mit Aphrodite verheiratet ist.…

Alkmaion

(786 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Ἀλκμαίων). [English version] [1] Sohn des Amphiaraos Sohn des Amphiaraos und der Eriphyle (Apollod. 3,81; Hes. fr. 198 M-W, vgl. 197; Überlieferungen s. [1; 2]). Er rächte seinen Vater mit seinem jüngeren Bruder Amphilochos durch die Ermordung von Eriphyle. A. wurde wahnsinnig und irrte durch Peloponnes und Nordwestgriechenland (Eur. TGF 65, 87). In Psophis wurde er von Phegeus geheilt und heiratete dessen Tochter Arsinoë, der er Eriphyles unselige Halskette und Schleier gab. Das Land wurde unfruchtbar, er ging nach Psophis zu Acheloos, um von ihm gereinigt zu werden. Dort wurde er mit dessen Tochter Kallirrhoë vermählt, die Kette und Schleier verlangte. Durch eine List versuchte er, sie zurückzuhalten, wurde durchschaut und von Phegeus' Söhnen umgebracht (Apollod. 3,86-90; Paus. 8,24,7). In Korinth hatte er mit Manto, der Tochter des Teiresias, zwei Kinder, Amphilochos und Tisiphone. Ihre Ziehmutter, Kreons Frau, verkaufte das Mädchen später ohne sein Wissen an ihren Vater. A. fand Amphilochos, den zukünftigen Gründer des amphilochischen Argos wieder (Apollod. 3,95). Dazu gehört die Erzählung, wie Diomedes und A. Kalydon für das Geschlecht des Oineus zurückeroberten (Apo…

Boiotos

(303 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Βοιωτός). Stammvater der Boiotoi, ist schwer zu erfassen. Nur zwei Genealogien verbinden ihn mit dem Land, das seinen Namen trug. Nach Hellanikos (FGrH 4F51) und anderen [1] war er der Sohn von Poseidon und Arne (Namensgeberin der urspr. Heimat der B…
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