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Rörer, Georg

(224 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1492, Deggendorf – Apr 24, 1557, Jena), Luther’s closest colleague, began his studies at Leipzig in 1511, receiving his M.A. on Dec 22, 1520. At the end of 1522 he moved to Wittenberg, where he matriculated on Apr 11, 1523. He tirelessly transcribed Luther’s sermons and lectures. After being ordained to the diaconate by Luther, in 1525 he was appointed second deacon of the municipal church, with responsibility for the rural parishes until 1533. In 1537 he was relieved of t…

Medler, Nikolaus

(122 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1502, Hof – Aug 24, 1551, Bernburg). After teaching at schools in Hof and Eger, Medler began his studies in Wittenberg in 1523. In 1527, he became a schoolmaster in Hof, and in 1529 assistant of K. Loener. In 1531, Medler was expelled together with Loener, and came again to Wittenberg (1532, M.A.; 1535, Dr.theol.; collected Luther's Table Talks). In 1536, he became pastor and superintendent ¶ in Naumburg, where he authored church disciplines. In 1545, he did the same in Braunschweig, where he rendered outstanding service to the school system. In…

Brück, Gregor

(183 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Heins; after Oct 12, 1485, Brück, Potsdam-Mittelmark – Feb 15, or more likely 20, 1557, Jena) studied in Wittenberg (1502), in Frankfurt/Oder (1506), and law in Wittenberg (1508). He was then a lawyer, alderman (1519) and court adviser. He obtained his Dr.iur. from Wittenberg in 1521. From 1521 to 1528, he was the chancellor of John the Const…

Forster, Johann

(205 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1496, Augsburg – Dec 8, 1556 [not 1558], Wittenberg). Forster's work was essentially dedicated to the study of Hebrew. In Ingolstadt, where he was a student from 1515 (M.A., 1520), he attended the lectures of J. Reuchlin in 1520–21. He then studied Greek in Leipzig and in 1522 became a Hebrew teacher in Zwickau. In 1530 he went to Wittenberg, where he developed a close relationship with Luther. In 1535–38 he was a preacher in Augsburg, and in 1539–41 a professor in Tübing…

Dévai Biró, Mátyás

(173 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1500, Deva – 1545, Debrecen). After study in Krakow in 1523–1524, Dévai became a Franciscan in 1526. He went to Wittenberg in 1529. In 1531, he preached Reformation principles in Hungary, but was immediately imprisoned in Vienna and Buda until 1535. Thereafter, he continued to preach from village to village. In 1536/37 and 1542/43, he stayed in Germany, mainly in …

Brunfels, Otto

(211 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1488/1490, Mainz – Nov 23, 1534, Bern). After studies in Mainz, Braunfels joined ¶ the Carthusians at Königshofen (Koenigshoffen), near Strassburg (Strasbourg). He fled the monastery in 1521 and was given a pastorate in Steinau an der Strasse by U. v. Hutten, but had to flee again the next year. He served as preacher in Neuenburg am Rhein from 1522 to 15…

Mosellanus, Petrus

(227 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493/1494, Bruttig – Apr 19, 1524, Leipzig). After attending school in Beilstein, Luxembourg, Limburg, and Trier, he began studies at Cologne in 1509, receiving his B.A. in 1511 and matriculating on Feb 1, 1512. In 1513/1514, he taught in a school in Freiberg. In 1515 he went to Leipzig to study with Richard Crocus, professor of Greek, whom he succeeded in 1517. He published several translations and editions of Greek authors and in 1518 published his Paedologia, a widely used schoolbook. Georg Agricola (1490–1555), J. Camerarius, C. Cruciger, J. Pflug, a…

Amerbach, Veit

(147 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Trolmann) (1503, Wemding – Sep 13, 1557, Ingolstadt). Amerbach studied at Ingolstadt in 1517, Freiburg in 1521, and Wittenberg in 1522. In 1526, he began teaching in Eisleben under J. Agricola. In 1529, he received his Master's degree and married. In 1530, he began teaching rhetoric and physics at Wittenberg, and in 1541 became a member of the consistory. After several years of criticizing Melanchthon and Luther philosophically and theologically, he became professor of rhetoric at Ingolstadt in 1543. In 1542, he published De anima, an attack on Melanchthon's …

Hardenberg, Albert Rizaeus

(246 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1510, Hardenberg, The Netherlands – May 18, 1574, Emden). Brought up among the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Groningen (1517–1527), Hardenberg became a monk in the Cistercian monastery of Aduard near Groningen (1528) and studied in Leuven from 1530 until receiving the Bacc.theol. Instead of a journey to Italy interrupted because of illness (1538), he earned the Dr.theol. in Mainz (1539). Arrested and charged as a Protestant in Leuven, he entered the Aduard monaste…

Volz, Paul

(239 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (before 1480, Offenburg – Jul 6, 1544, Straßburg [Strasbourg]), monastic Humanist and Straßburg preacher. After attending school in Schlettstadt (Sélestat), he joined the Benedictines in Schuttern (part of the Bursfelde congregation since 1489). In 1495 he began to study in Tübingen, earning his M.A. in 1499, after which he became librarian and historian of Schuttern Abbey. In 1512 he became abbot of Hugshofen (Honcourt) near Schlettstadt, charged to implement the Bursfelde reform…

Bibliander (Buchmann), Theodor

(175 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1504, Bischofszell – Sep 26, 1564, Zürich) studied at Basel and was professor of Rhetoric in Liegnitz from 1527 to 1529. In 1531, as a follower of Zwingli, he became professor of Old Testament at Zürich. Buchmann had command of an exceptional number of languages. His exegesis was philosophical and historical; he interpreted the entire Old …

Heß, Johann

(345 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1490, Nuremberg – Jan 5, 1547, Breslau). The merchant's son Johann Heß attended the grammar school in Zwickau from 1503, studied at the University of Leipzig from 1505 to 1510, and later at Wittenberg (M.A. in 1511) where he met Luther. In 1513, he moved to Neisse where he became secretary and notary in the chancellery of the bishop of Breslau, Johannes V. Turzo, who endowed him with canonries in Neisse, Brieg and Breslau from 1515 onward. Heß was appointed tutor to Princ…

Fagius, Paul

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1504, Rheinzabern – Nov 13, 1549, Cambridge). Fagius studied from 1515 in Heidelberg (Heidelberg, University of; 1522, M.A. degree), ¶ where he became acquainted with Luther in 1518. In 1522 he became a teacher in Strasbourg. He learned Hebrew from W. Capito. In 1527 he became a school rector in Isny, returning to Strasbourg in 1535, where he worked with M. Bucer and studied theology. In 1537–1542 he was a preacher in Isny, where he improved his Hebrew with Elijah Levita and ran a Hebrew printing co…

Sturm, Johannes

(315 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1507, Schleiden, Eifel – Mar 3, 1589, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After an education by the Brothers of the Common Life (Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life) in Liège and (along with J. Sleidanus) at the Collegium trilingue in Leuven, he came to Paris in 1529, where he studied medicine and lectured on Humanistic subjects. In 1533 he joined the Reformed group at the court of Francis I of France. In 1536 he fled to Straßburg, where M. Bucer and Jakob Sturm entrusted him wit…

Beyer, Hartmann

(143 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Sep 9, 1516, Frankfurt/M. – Aug 11, 1577, Frankfurt). Following twelve formative years in Wittenberg, Beyer was appointed preacher in 1546 in his native town, which was Upper German in orientation (ordained by J. Bugenhagen). Against the advice of Luther, he immediately attempted to introduce the Saxon order of liturgy. When the council accepted the Augsburg Interim in 1548, Beyer published two polemical pamphlets under the pseudonyms Cephalus and Epitimius. In 1552, he secured the expulsion of Theobald Thamer by the council. In 1561, he obtained the closure of the We…

Agricola, Stephan

(133 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Kastenbauer) (1491?, Abensberg – Apr 10, 1547, Eisleben) studied in Vienna from 1513, became an Augustinian hermit here in 1515, was awarded a doctorate in theology in 1519 and then became a monastic lector in Regensburg and Rattenberg. In 1522 he was imprisoned in Mühldorf (Inn) on account of his evangelical doctrine and fled in May 1524. In…


(256 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] 1. Alfonso de (c. 1500, Cuenca – Oct 6, 1532, Vienna), from 1520 or earlier secretary in the chancery of Emperor Charles V, for whose policies he acted as spokesman after 1525. He was present at the diets in Worms in 1521 and Augsburg in 1530, where he debated with Melanchthon. Heinz Scheible Bibliography J.C. Nieto, EncR IV, 1996, 212 E. Wenneker, BBKL XII, 1997, 1035–1037 K. Ganzer, LThK 3 X, 2001, 511. 2. Juan de (1509?, Cuenca – August 1541, Naples), brother of Alfonso; Spanish humanist and theologian. He began his studies in 1526 at the University of…

Hermann of Wied

(248 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1477, Wied – Aug 15, 1552, Wied). The younger son of a count who was orphaned early in life received his first benefice as early as 1483 in Cologne, became canon in 1490, and was appointed archbishop and thus also elector in 1515. He delayed his ordination until 1518 and his entry into Cologne until 1522. He supported the Edict of Worms (1521) against Luther and his adherents out of convic-¶ tion. He saw the church's need for reform chiefly in the involvement of the curia in the filling of positions. His theological adviser was J. Gropper, who…

Alesius, Alexander

(120 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Alane) (Apr 23, 1500, Edinburgh – Mar 17, 1565, Leipzig) was canon in St. Andrews; imprisoned in 1529 for criticizing the church, he fled to the mainland; he became a lecturer in Wittenberg in 1533. In 1535, Alesius went to Reformation-friendly England, but had once again to flee in 1539 because he married. In 1540, he became professor of theology in …

Althamer, Andreas

(156 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (pseud. Palaeosphyra; before 1500, Brenz – 1539, Ansbach). Following studies at Leipzig and Tübingen from 1516, Althamer taught in Halle and Reutlingen from 1521 to 1523. In 1524, he was appointed curate in Schwäbisch Gmünd. After losing his position in 1525 because he had married, he studied at Wittenberg. In 1527, he became pastor in Eltersdorf near Nürnberg. As pastor in Ansbach from 1528, he played a decisive role in the reformation of the margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach. In 1537, he became a reformer in Brandenburg-Küstrin. Heinz Scheible Bibliography T. Kold…
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