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Witzel

(235 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[English Version] , Georg (1501 Vacha – 16.2.1573 Mainz). 1516 Studium in Erfurt, 1518 Schulmeister in Vacha; 1520 in Wittenberg; 1521 Priester, Vikar und Stadtschreiber in Vacha; 1524 Heirat in Eisenach, Gehilfe des J. Strauß; 1524 Pfarrer in Wenigenlupnitz, 1526 in Niemegk. 1529 Beobachter beim Marburger Religionsgespräch. Sein krit. Briefwechsel mit Melanchthon und J. Jonas und das Studium der Kirchenväter führte ihn 1531 zur Abkehr vom Luthertum. Rückkehr nach Vacha, 1532–1535 Streitschriftenkr…

Schwebel

(184 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[English Version]  (Schweblin),  Johannes (ca.1490 Pforzheim – 19.5.1540 Zweibrücken). Nach Studium in Tübingen und Leipzig 1510 Eintritt in den Hospitalorden vom Hl. Geist. 1511 Studium in Heidelberg (1513 B.A.). 1514 Priesterweihe in Straßburg und in Pforzheim Prediger am Heiliggeistspital. Ab 1519 predigte er reformatorisch und trat 1521 aus dem Orden aus, worauf er die Stadt verlassen mußte und bei F. v.  Sickingen Zuflucht fand. Er wurde als Nachfolger M. Bucers Pfarrer von Landstuhl und als N…

Rörer

(182 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[English Version] Rörer, Georg (1.10.1492 Deggendorf – 24.4.1557 Jena). Der engste Mitarbeiter Luthers studierte ab 1511 in Leipzig (22.12.1520 M.A.). Ende 1522 zog er nach Wittenberg (11.4.1523 immatrikuliert). Unermüdlich schrieb er Luthers Predigten und Vorlesungen nach. 1525 wurde er, von Luther ordiniert, zweiter Diaconus an der Stadtkirche, bis 1533 mit Zuständigkeit für die Landgemeinden. 1537 wurde er von diesem Dienst entlastet und ihm seine Hilfe für Luther als amtliche Aufgabe übertragen…

Sturm

(276 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[English Version] Sturm, Johannes (1.10.1507 Schleiden, Eifel – 3.3.1589 Straßburg). Ausgebildet bei den Brüdern vom gemeinsamen Leben in Lüttich und (mit J. Sleidanus) am Collegium trilinque in Löwen kam er 1529 nach Paris, wo er Medizin studierte und humanistische Vorlesungen hielt. Seit 1533 gehörte er zum Reformkreis am Hofe des Königs Franz I. von Frankreich. 1536 Flucht nach Straßburg. Von M. Bucer und Jakob  Sturm mit der Reform des Schulwesens betraut, entwarf er 1538 für das neue Gymnasium…

Cordatus, Conrad

(217 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1480 or 1483, Leombach near Wels – Mar 25, 1546, while traveling near Spandau) began his studies in 1502 in Vienna, Rome and Ferrara (Lic. theol.). In Bohemia he came into contact with Hussites (J. Hus). In Hungary he supported the Reformation in his preaching, had to step down and came to Wittenberg in 1524. In 1525 he returned and was incarcerated in Esztergom (Gran). He managed to escape. Luther helped him to a teaching position in Liegnitz i…

Loener, Kaspar

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493, Markt Erlbach – Jan 4, 1546, Nördlingen), attended the monastery school in Heilsbronn, studied in Erfurt from 1508 and perhaps in Wittenberg from 1518. He became pastoral administrator in Unternesselbach and celebrant of the early mass in the Cistercian monastery in Birkenfeld (Neustadt/Aisch) in 1520 and preacher in Hof in 1524. Expelled in 1526, he became preacher in Oelsnitz, enrolled at the University of Wittenberg in 1526, but was a court preacher again already in 1529…

Aurifaber (Goldschmidt)

(264 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] 1. Andreas (1514, Breslau [Wrocław] – Dec 12, 1559, Königsberg [Kaliningrad]); brother of 2. From 1527 on he studied and taught at Wittenberg. In 1539 he became rector of the Latin school in Danzig; he move to Elbing in 1541, returned to Wittenberg in 1542, and then studied medicine in Padua. In 1546 he was appointed professor at Königsberg and became the personal physician to the duke. In 1550 a second marriage made him the son-in-law of A. Osiander, after whose death he became the leader of the Osiandrist party, exercising great influence on Duke Albert of Prussia. Heinz Sch…

Schwebel (Schweblin), Johannes

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1490, Pforzheim – May 19, 1540, Zweibrücken). After studying at Tübingen and Leipzig, Schwebel joined the Hospitalers of the Holy Spirit. In 1511 he began studying at Heidelberg, receiving his B.A. in 1513. In 1514 he was ordained to the priesthood in Straßburg (Strasbourg) and appointed preacher at the Heilig-Geist-Spital in Pforzheim. In 1519 he began to preach in the spirit of the Reformation; in 1521 he left the order and had to leave the city, taking refuge with F. v. Sic…

Sarcerius, Erasmus

(281 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1501, Annaberg – Nov 28, 1559, Magdeburg), a prolific writer and successful Reformer of an independent bent. After 1513 he spent years of study and travel in Freiberg, Erfurt, Leipzig, Wittenberg, Lübeck, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Basel, Vienna, Graz, and Rostock. His most important teacher was P. Mosellanus. In 1531 he was appointed deputy headmaster of the Katharineum, the Gymnasium in Lübeck founded by J. Bugenhagen. On Jun 15, 1536, he was appointed headmaster of the new L…

Muth, Konrad

(227 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Mutianus; Oct 15, 1470, Homberg/Efze – Mar 30, 1526, Gotha), fellow student of Erasmus of Rotterdam in the school of A. Hegius in Deventer. While a student in Erfurt from 1486 (1488 B.A., 1492 M.A.), he attended the lectures of C. Celtis. From 1494 he studied in Italy (Dr.iur.can.). In 1502 Muth returned to Germany, served briefly in the Hesse chancery, and in 1503 joined a religious foundation in Gotha (as Stiftsherr). In 1504 he was ordained priest, but despised choir service, lived for his Humanist studies, published nothing, but gathered friends…

Capito, Wolfgang

(285 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1481 [not 1478] Hagenau – Nov 4, 1541, Strasbourg) studied in Ingolstadt (1501), Heidelberg (1504), Freiburg (1505, 1515 Dr. theol.). In 1512, he became seminary preacher in Bruchsal, in 1515 cathedral preacher and professor in Basel, an eminent Hebraist. Capito was sympathetic to Erasmus and produced the first edition of Luther's collected writings in 1518. In 1520, Capito became cathedral preacher in Electoral Mainz. As counselor to archbishop…

Luder, Peter

(161 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1415, Kislau [Bad Schönborn] – 1472, Vienna). After basic studies in Heidelberg from 1430/1431, Luder lived from 1434 to 1456 in Italy and also visited Greece. He was a student of Guarino da Verona (1374–1460) in Ferrara, received a notary's certificate from the Republic of Venice in 1444 and studied medicine in Padua. From 1456 to 1460, he held an electoral commission to teach the studia humanitatis in Heidelberg. In his programmatic inaugural address, he commended the study of history, rhetoric, and poetry. In 1460, he resumed his travels. …

Dryander

(110 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Enzinas, Francisco de; Nov 1, 1518, Burgos – Dec 30, 1552, Straßburg) moved from Leuven (1539) to Wittenberg in 1541, where he lived with Melanchthon. The latter inspired him to translate the NT into Spanish. In 1543, Dryander presented the Antwerp impression (Bible translations: II, 2.a) to the emperor in Brussels, whereupon he was imprisoned. In 1545, he fled to Wittenberg, where he recorded his experiences. He then traveled throughout Upper Germany and Switzerland, and stayed in England from 1548 to 1549. Heinz Scheible Bibliography F.W. Bautz, BBKL I, 1975, 151…

Agricola, Rudolf

(99 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Huisman) (Feb 17, 1444, Baflo – Oct 27, 1487, Heidelberg) was schooled in Groningen and undertook studies in Erfurt, Cologne, Louvain, Pavia and Ferrara (Huisman). He translated rhetorical and dialectical works from Greek. In 1480 he was a lawyer for the city of Groningen. In 1484 he taught in Heidelberg and maintained frequent contact with humanists and journeyed to Rome. His writings, published posthumously, have had enduring influence. Heinz Scheible Bibliography Works include: Opuscula Orationes Epistolae, 1539, repr. 1975 De inventione dialectica libri…

Witzel, Georg

(357 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1501, Vacha – Feb 16, 1573, Mainz). In 1516 he matriculated at Erfurt and became a schoolteacher in Vacha in 1518. He studied at Wittenberg in 1520 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1521, being appointed vicar and town clerk in Vacha. In 1524 he was married in Eisenach and became an assistant to J. Strauß. In 1524 he was appointed pastor in Wenigenlupnitz and in 1526 in Niemegk. He was an observer at the Marburg Colloquy in 1529 (Disputations, Religious). His critical corresp…

Billicanus Gerlacher, Theobald

(187 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1490/1495, Billigheim – Aug 8/9, 1554, Marburg). In 1510 Billicanus began his studies at Heidelberg (forming a friendship with Melanchthon), and became a priest in Weil in 1518. He was expelled from the town because of his criticism of the church and served as a Luther-influenced preacher from 1522 to 1535 in Nördlingen, where in 1525 he authored a Kirchenordnung (document on church order), by which time he was married. At the Augsburg Parliament, he made approaches to the Roman par…

Camerarius, Joachim

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Apr 12, 1500, Bamberg – Apr 17, 1574, Leipzig) began studies in Leipzig in 1512, in Erfurt in 1518 (M.A. 1521), and in Wittenberg in 1521, where he enjoyed a close friendship with Melanchthon. He became professor of rhetoric in 1522, although he often spent long periods in Bamberg and traveling, in 1524 with Melanchthon to Bretten and as Luther's emissary to Erasmus in Basel. In 1525 he became professor of Greek in Wittenberg, in 1526 rector in …

Gramann, Johann

(183 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Poliander; Dec 26, 1486 or Jul 5, 1487, Neustadt/Aisch – Apr 29, 1541, Królewiec [Ger. Königsberg], Poland). After studying in Leipzig (1503–1516), Gramann stayed on to become a lecturer at the St. Thomas School and served as secretary to J. Eck during the Leipzig Disputation of 1519, whereupon he then joined Luther in Wittenberg, although he was awarded the degree of Bacc.theol. from Leipzig in 1520. He was rector of the St. Thomas School from 1520 to 1522, and cathedral preache…

Freder, Johannes

(284 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1510, Koszalin [Ger. Köslin], Poland – Jan 25, 1562, Wismar). After studying in Wittenberg (from 1524, M.A. in 1533; Wittenberg, University of), Freder was appointed co-rector of the Johanneum in Hamburg in 1537, where he also became preacher in 1539. Without ordination, through the laying-on-of-hands he officiated as pastor and lector secundarius of the cathedral from 1540 to 1547. When Freder became superintendent of Stralsund in 1547, the general superintendent of Wolgast, J. Knipstro, was in favor of ordaining him, but …

Gnapheus, Gulielmus

(193 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Willem de Volder; 1493, Den Haag – Sep 29, 1568, Norden). After his studies in Cologne (from 1512) and from 1522, the successful humanistic dramatist was rector of a school in The Hague. In 1529, his Acolastus, a drama concerning the prodigal son that underwent more than 50 reprints and translations, appeared in Antwerp. In 1531, he evaded the Inquisition by going to Elbing, where he became the rector of the new Latin school in 1535. In 1541, he was forced to escape from bishop Johannes Dantiscus, to Königsberg. He…
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