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Devotional Images

(233 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
Devotional images are cultic objects that believers piously venerate in holy places and from which, as representations of the saints (DH 1823), they expect miracles and salvation (Piety). Pilgrimages to devotional images sprang up besides pilgrimages to places of remembrance, graves, and relics of saints. Veneration of Mary, which developed from the 12th century and was promoted by the orders and later by the Counter-Reformation, especially the Jesuits, greatly increased pilgrimages to devotional images, since Mary was not a martyr, and there were no bodily relics of Mary. Devotio…

Donation of Constantine

(581 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The Donation of Constantine (Constitutum or Donatio Constantini) was a document forged sometime between roughly a.d. 750 and 850, probably with the participation of the Roman clergy. It is first attested in the False Decretals (…


(142 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
Altötting, Bavaria, is an important site of pilgrimage in honor of Mary. The town, which has a chapel going back to the eighth century, has long been a favorite resort of the nobility. After reports of miracles in about 1489, the pilgrimage developed under the patronage of the dukes of Bavaria, attracting travelers from Bohemia, South Tirol, and Italy as well as Bavaria. The Reformation and Enlightenment, however, threatened to end it.…


(2,213 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
1. Term There are monasteries not only in Christianity but also in Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, and Islamic Sufism. The monastery separates monks and nuns from the world (Monasticism). After they have taken their vows, it opens up for them an ongoing, secluded monastic life of either contemplation or action within the rules of the order, the aim being a life that is holy and well-pleasing to God in fulfillment of the so-called counsels of perfection, or evangelical counsels (i.e., poverty, chastity, and obedience). 2. Development In the early church anchorites (from Gk. anachōreō

Discalced Friars

(141 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The discalced friars are religious orders whose members wear nothing on their feet but sandals (Franciscans) or who go totally barefoot (Carmelites). Biblical reasons and precedents include poverty (Isa. 20:2–4), reverence (Exod. 3:5; Josh. 5:15…

Stations of the Cross

(412 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The stations of the cross (a term coined by William Wey in 1472) are an ancient form of devotion involving the treading and contemplating of Christ’s way of suffering. Usually today t…

Vicelinus, Saint

(145 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] (c. 1090, Hamelin – Dec 12, 1154, Neumünster), “the apostle of Holstein and Vagria.” He taught at the cathedral school in Bremen, studied in Laon, and was ordained to the priesthood in Magdeburg in 1126 by Norbert of Xanten. After 1127 Vicelinus worked as a missionary on the German/Slavic frontier with his base in Wippenthorp/Faldera (later Neumünster), where he also founded a monastery. On Sep 25, 1149, he was consecrated bishop of the see of Oldenburg in Holstein, vacant since 1066, by archbis…

Tast, Hermann

(177 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] …


(1,155 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] is the northernmost Land of the Federal Republic of Germany; it had a population of 2.832 million in 2009. Its capital is Kiel.…

Schnabel, Tilemann

(213 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] (c. 1475 – Sep 27, 1559, Alsfeld). An Augustinian Hermit in Alsfeld, Schnabel attended the o…


(2,248 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History – III. The Evangelical Church of Kurhessen-Waldeck I. General The federal state (Ger. Land) of Hessen has existed in its present-day form since Sep 19, 1945. Its new constitution was adopted by referendum on Dec 1, 1946. Hessen covers an area of 21,115 km2 and has 6,075,259 inhabitants (as of Dec 2006). It is subdivided into three administrative regions (Kassel, Gießen, Darmstadt), 21 districts, and 426 cities and communities. The capital of Hessen is Wiesbaden. …

Pamphlets of the Reformation

(738 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] In the early years of the Reformation, pamphlets and illustrated leaflets – alongside oral forms of agitation, propaganda, preach-¶ ing, and song – became for the first time a significant mass medium in the communication processes of church and society, creating and shaping a public that transcended class differences. As topical journalism, they served to promote, spread, and defend the Reformation or to challenge it. The two media differed in character and impact. While leaflets had to present thei…

Lutheran Society

(193 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] The society was founded in Wittenberg on Sep 26, 1918, on the initiative of R. Eucken. According to its constitution, its purpose is “constantly to maintain a living awareness of Luther in the totality of who he was and what he did.” It carries out this work through publications – the Lutherjahrbuch as an organ of international Luther scholarship and the journal Luther, addressed to a broader circle –, support of the Luther Memorials Foundation of Saxony-Anhalt, conferences, work with regional bodies, the Martin Luther Prize, and a Martin Lu…


(12,033 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historical survey 1.1. Terminology and early modern interpretationSince the mid-19th century,  Reformation (from Latin  reformatio, “restoration,” “transformation”) has been a specialized term for one side of the 16th-century events that tore Western Christendom apart into mutually antagonistic confessional churches; its antonym, denoting the other side, is  Counter-Reformation.Previously the term had carried the general meaning of “reform.” In the ecclesiastical and political reform movements of the late Middle Ages, we find both  reformatio and the verb  reform…
Date: 2021-03-15


(10,680 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historischer Überblick 1.1. Begriff und neuzeitliche DeutungR. (von lat. reformatio, ›Wiederherstellung‹, ›Umgestaltung‹) ist seit der Mitte des 19. Jh.s spezieller Terminus für die eine Seite jener Vorgänge, durch die im 16. Jh. die westl. Christenheit in mehrere einander antagonistische Konfessionskirchen auseinandertrat; sein Antonym, welches die andere Seite bezeichnet, ist Gegen-R.Zuvor hatte der Begriff die allgemeine Bedeutung von Reform. So begegnet reformatio bzw. die zugrundeliegende verbale Form reformare in den kirchl. und polit. Reformbewegungen…
Date: 2020-11-18


(1,006 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[English Version] . Sch.-H. ist das nördlichste Bundesland der Bundesrepublik Deutschland mit 2,766 Mio. Einwohnern (1998). Landeshauptstadt ist Kiel. I. Christentum und Kirche haben in Sch.-H. eine kürzere Gesch. als in anderen Gegenden Deutschlands; vor dem Wirken Ansgars (um 826) – mit diesem Leitstern werden die Anfänge des Christentums in diesem Land identifiziert – gibt es keine nennenswerten Spuren. Das 831 errichtete Erzbistum Hamburg wurde 845 nach Bremen verlegt. Bis zur Gründung des Erzbistums Lund 110…


(162 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[English Version] Tast, Hermann (Harmen; 1490 oder 1491 Husum – 11.5.1551 ebd.), 1511 in Wittenberg immatrikuliert, 1534 und 1542 als Inhaber der Vikarie am Altar des Hl. Michael in der Husumer Marienkirche erwähnt, soll seit 1522, gefördert durch den Kaufmann Matthias Knutzen, in Husum »ev.« gepredigt haben. 1527 erster Prediger an der Marienkirche in Husum, wo er auch an der Neuordnung der Lateinschule beteiligt war. Er nahm als Wortführer an der Flensburger Disputation (8.4.1529; Schleswig-Holst…
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