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(10,680 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historischer Überblick 1.1. Begriff und neuzeitliche DeutungR. (von lat. reformatio, ›Wiederherstellung‹, ›Umgestaltung‹) ist seit der Mitte des 19. Jh.s spezieller Terminus für die eine Seite jener Vorgänge, durch die im 16. Jh. die westl. Christenheit in mehrere einander antagonistische Konfessionskirchen auseinandertrat; sein Antonym, welches die andere Seite bezeichnet, ist Gegen-R.Zuvor hatte der Begriff die allgemeine Bedeutung von Reform. So begegnet reformatio bzw. die zugrundeliegende verbale Form reformare in den kirchl. und polit. Reformbewegungen…
Date: 2020-11-18


(12,033 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historical survey 1.1. Terminology and early modern interpretationSince the mid-19th century,  Reformation (from Latin  reformatio, “restoration,” “transformation”) has been a specialized term for one side of the 16th-century events that tore Western Christendom apart into mutually antagonistic confessional churches; its antonym, denoting the other side, is  Counter-Reformation.Previously the term had carried the general meaning of “reform.” In the ecclesiastical and political reform movements of the late Middle Ages, we find both  reformatio and the verb  reform…
Date: 2021-03-15

Kiel, University

(584 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] The “Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel” was established in 1665, after the end of the Thirty Years War, in a former Franciscan monastery of the city. It is thus one of the late princely university foundations that began in the mid-15th century. Its motto Pax optima rerum indicates that the memory of wartime perils was still fresh and that the fostering of peace was of paramount importance. Initially only meant to serve the needs of the minor principality of ¶ Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf, it gradually developed into the regional university of Schleswig-…

Vicelinus, Saint

(145 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] (c. 1090, Hamelin – Dec 12, 1154, Neumünster), “the apostle of Holstein and Vagria.” He taught at the cathedral school in Bremen, studied in Laon, and was ordained to the priesthood in Magdeburg in 1126 by Norbert of Xanten. After 1127 Vicelinus worked as a missionary on the German/Slavic frontier with his base in Wippenthorp/Faldera (later Neumünster), where he also founded a monastery. On Sep 25, 1149, he was consecrated bishop of the see of Oldenburg in Holstein, vacant since 1…

Tast, Hermann

(177 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] (Harmen; 1490 or 1491, Husum – May 11, 1551, Husum), matriculated at Wittenberg in 1511. In 1534 and 1542 he is mentioned as holder of the benefice of the altar of St. Michael in the Marien-¶ kirche in Husum. It is reported that he had been preaching “evangelically” in Husum since 1522, with the support of Matthias Knutzen, a merchant. In 1527 he was appointed senior preacher of the Marienkirche in Husum, where he also had a hand in reorganizing the Latin school. He was a spokesman at the Flensburg disputation on Ap…


(1,155 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] is the northernmost Land of the Federal Republic of Germany; it had a population of 2.832 million in 2009. Its capital is Kiel. I Christianity and the church have a shorter history in Schleswig-Holstein than in other parts of Germany; there is no evidence worth mentioning prior to the mission of Ansgar c. 826, with whom the beginning of Christianity in this area are identified. The archbishopric of Hamburg was moved to Bremen in 845. Until the establishment of the archbishopric of Lund in 1103, the arch…

Schnabel, Tilemann

(213 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] (c. 1475 – Sep 27, 1559, Alsfeld). An Augustinian Hermit in Alsfeld, Schnabel attended the order’s house of studies in Erfurt, then matriculated at Wittenberg on Jun 18, 1512, receiving his Bacc.biblicus on Oct 14, 1512, his Bacc.formatus on Sep 16, 1513, and his Dr.theol. on Oct 6, 1514. He preached the Protestant cause in Alsfeld in the 1520 and probably in the fall of 1523 as an exile in Wittenberg. From 1523 to 1526 he served as a pastor in Leisnig and from 1526 to 1557 as a p…


(2,248 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History – III. The Evangelical Church of Kurhessen-Waldeck I. General The federal state (Ger. Land) of Hessen has existed in its present-day form since Sep 19, 1945. Its new constitution was adopted by referendum on Dec 1, 1946. Hessen covers an area of 21,115 km2 and has 6,075,259 inhabitants (as of Dec 2006). It is subdivided into three administrative regions (Kassel, Gießen, Darmstadt), 21 districts, and 426 cities and communities. The capital of Hessen is Wiesbaden. The Catholic Christians of Hessen live in the bishoprics of Main…

Pamphlets of the Reformation

(738 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] In the early years of the Reformation, pamphlets and illustrated leaflets – alongside oral forms of agitation, propaganda, preach-¶ ing, and song – became for the first time a significant mass medium in the communication processes of church and society, creating and shaping a public that transcended class differences. As topical journalism, they served to promote, spread, and defend the Reformation or to challenge it. The two media differed in character and impact. While leaflets had to present thei…

Lutheran Society

(193 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[German Version] The society was founded in Wittenberg on Sep 26, 1918, on the initiative of R. Eucken. According to its constitution, its purpose is “constantly to maintain a living awareness of Luther in the totality of who he was and what he did.” It carries out this work through publications – the Lutherjahrbuch as an organ of international Luther scholarship and the journal Luther, addressed to a broader circle –, support of the Luther Memorials Foundation of Saxony-Anhalt, conferences, work with regional bodies, the Martin Luther Prize, and a Martin Lu…

Devotional Images

(233 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
Devotional images are cultic objects that believers piously venerate in holy places and from which, as representations of the saints (DH 1823), they expect miracles and salvation (Piety). Pilgrimages to devotional images sprang up besides pilgrimages to places of remembrance, graves, and relics of saints. Veneration of Mary, which developed from the 12th century and was promoted by the orders and later by the Counter-Reformation, especially the Jesuits, greatly increased pilgrimages to devotional images, since Mary was not a martyr, and there were no bodily relics of Mary. Devotio…

Pope, Papacy

(8,276 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes | Kirchner, Hubert | Heinemann, Heribert | Leuze, Reinhard
1. Historical Aspects 1.1. General 1.1.1. To present a history of the popes, church historians must pay particular attention to the distinction between specific historical situations and a presumed logical development (Philosophy of History). Are we to understand the papacy as a divine institution and its history as the entelechy of this nature? Or are we to deal with it as a historical phenomenon with a place in history that we cannot differentiate in principle from that of any other? Even if we ado…

Donation of Constantine

(581 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The Donation of Constantine (Constitutum or Donatio Constantini) was a document forged sometime between roughly a.d. 750 and 850, probably with the participation of the Roman clergy. It is first attested in the False Decretals (ca. 850, attributed to Isidore of Seville), then in many versions and MSS. It is linked to a fifth-century story involving Pope Sylvester I (314–35) and Emperor Constantine (306–37). According to the story, Constantine was healed of leprosy and, in gratitude, became a Christian and gave the Roman church …


(142 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
Altötting, Bavaria, is an important site of pilgrimage in honor of Mary. The town, which has a chapel going back to the eighth century, has long been a favorite resort of the nobility. After reports of miracles in about 1489, the pilgrimage developed under the patronage of the dukes of Bavaria, attracting travelers from Bohemia, South Tirol, and Italy as well as Bavaria. The Reformation and Enlightenment, however, threatened to end it. P. Canisius (1521–97), M. Eisengrein (1535–78), and, later, J. M. Sailer gave it fresh impetus. Albert V (1550–79) did much to promo…


(2,213 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
1. Term There are monasteries not only in Christianity but also in Buddhism, Taoism, Jainism, and Islamic Sufism. The monastery separates monks and nuns from the world (Monasticism). After they have taken their vows, it opens up for them an ongoing, secluded monastic life of either contemplation or action within the rules of the order, the aim being a life that is holy and well-pleasing to God in fulfillment of the so-called counsels of perfection, or evangelical counsels (i.e., poverty, chastity, and obedience). 2. Development In the early church anchorites (from Gk. anachōreō, “s…

Catechismus Romanus

(409 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The Catechismus Romanus is the authoritative catechetical response of the Council of Trent (1545–63) to the main catechisms of the Reformers (G. J. Bellinger). It was planned in the first sessions of Trent but could not be completed while the council was meeting. The council thus gave the task, along with its preparatory labors, to Pope Pius IV (1559–65), who entrusted the work in 1564 to a commission of former council members under the presidency of his nephew Carlo Borromeo (1538–84). After various revisions the first edition came out in September/October 1566 in Rome. It bore the title Ca…

Discalced Friars

(141 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The discalced friars are religious orders whose members wear nothing on their feet but sandals (Franciscans) or who go totally barefoot (Carmelites). Biblical reasons and precedents include poverty (Isa. 20:2–4), reverence (Exod. 3:5; Josh. 5:15), and penitence (2 Sam. 15:30). The underlying idea is that in the spirit of discipleship of Jesus, the discalced friars observe a rule Jesus once gave prohibiting the use of shoes (see Matt. 10:10). Observants, Capuchins, Camaldolese, Servites, and Passionists are some of the orders of male religious involved. Women’s o…

Stations of the Cross

(412 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
The stations of the cross (a term coined by William Wey in 1472) are an ancient form of devotion involving the treading and contemplating of Christ’s way of suffering. Usually today there are 14 stations. They are based on the gospels (Gospel), with only the Veronica station being legendary. The progress is from Pilate’s house (the condemnation of Jesus) to the entombment. In more recent discussion a 15th station is the goal (the resurrection). The starting point is the Good Friday liturgy and procession in Jerusalem, which goes back to the fourth century. The develop…


(1,006 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[English Version] . Sch.-H. ist das nördlichste Bundesland der Bundesrepublik Deutschland mit 2,766 Mio. Einwohnern (1998). Landeshauptstadt ist Kiel. I. Christentum und Kirche haben in Sch.-H. eine kürzere Gesch. als in anderen Gegenden Deutschlands; vor dem Wirken Ansgars (um 826) – mit diesem Leitstern werden die Anfänge des Christentums in diesem Land identifiziert – gibt es keine nennenswerten Spuren. Das 831 errichtete Erzbistum Hamburg wurde 845 nach Bremen verlegt. Bis zur Gründung des Erzbistums Lund 110…


(162 words)

Author(s): Schilling, Johannes
[English Version] Tast, Hermann (Harmen; 1490 oder 1491 Husum – 11.5.1551 ebd.), 1511 in Wittenberg immatrikuliert, 1534 und 1542 als Inhaber der Vikarie am Altar des Hl. Michael in der Husumer Marienkirche erwähnt, soll seit 1522, gefördert durch den Kaufmann Matthias Knutzen, in Husum »ev.« gepredigt haben. 1527 erster Prediger an der Marienkirche in Husum, wo er auch an der Neuordnung der Lateinschule beteiligt war. Er nahm als Wortführer an der Flensburger Disputation (8.4.1529; Schleswig-Holst…
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