Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schimmel, Annemarie" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schimmel, Annemarie" )' returned 20 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

S̲h̲ams-i Tabrīz(ī)

(852 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, the name given to a rather enigmatic dervish who deeply influenced and transformed D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.], and whose real name was, according to D̲j̲āmī, Nafaḥāt al-uns , ed. Nassau Lees, 535, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Malik-dād-i Tabrīzī. His prose writings, Maḳālāt , as well as the notes by Rūmī’s elder son Sulṭān Walad [ q.v.], reveal him as a man of overwhelming spiritual power. He must have been in his forties or fifties when he reached Konya on 26 D̲j̲umādā II 642/23 October 1244, but next to nothing about his spiritual pedigree i…

Raḳṣ

(1,325 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
(a.), dance. The following article deals with the dance in Ṣūfism. During recent decades, one could sometimes read in American newspapers about “Courses in Sufi Dance”, and “Sufi dance” became a fashionable way of cultivating one’s soul. However, the topic of dancing is frowned upon in Islam, for dancing is connected, in the history of religions in general, with ecstasy. It takes the human being out of his/her normal movement and makes him/her gyrate, so to speak, around a different centre of gravity. To b…

al-Nūrī

(710 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn (or Abu ’l-Ḥasan ) Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Bag̲h̲awī, Ṣūfī mystic, of K̲h̲urāsānī background, was born (probably ca. 226/840, as he had met Dhu ’l-Nūn) in Bag̲h̲dād, where he spent most of his life. He died in 295/907. The most extensive information about him is given by al-Sarrād̲j̲ and al-Kalābād̲h̲ī; the brief biographies of al-Sulamī and Abū Nuʿaym agree almost verbatim, as do the Persian notes in Anṣārī and Jāmī. ʿAṭṭār’s biography elaborates on otherwise little-known details; Baḳlī devotes five chapters (§§ 95-9) of his S̲h̲arḥ-i s̲h̲aṭḥiyyāt to al-Nūrī. It is said …

Sabʿ, Sabʿa

(887 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
(a.), seven, is a number of greatest importance in both the Semitic and the Iranian traditions as it combines the spiritual Three and the material Four. Its history probably begins in Babylon with the observation of four lunar phases of seven days each. The seven planets (including sun and moon) have reigned supreme in human thought since Antiquity. Each of them is connected with a specific colour, scent and character. Niẓāmī’s (d. in the early 7th/13th century [ q.v.]) Persian epic Haft paykar is the finest elaboration of these ideas. The imagined seven stations between the …

Number

(949 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
1. A sense of number seems to be an inherent part of human life and property. All cults and religions have understood number in much the same way. The Babylonians (Babylonian and Assyrian Religion), using 60 as the basis, oriented their numerical system to the heavenly bodies. The Pythagoreans (Greek Philosophy 2.2) equated the cosmos with pure mathematics. For them the odd numbers were masculine and positive. Their views influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The strictly arithmetic theories (esp. of Euclid [4th cent. b.c.]), which were not under Pythagorean influenc…

Iḳbāl

(2,776 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, Muḥammad, né en 1873 (ou plus probablement en 1876) à Sialkot au Pand̲j̲āb. Au cours de ses études à Lahore, il se lia avec sir Thomas Arnold à qui il dut en partie de pouvoir se rendre en Angleterre en 1905. A Cambridge, Ikḅāl qui était déjà un poète romantique connu en ourdou et un nationaliste indien, étudia la philosophie sous la direction de l’hégélien J. M. E. McTaggart, ainsi que le droit. En 1907, il fit un voyage en Allemagne où il obtint son doctorat en philosophie à Munich sous la direction de F. Hommel. Sa thèse, The development of metaphysics in Persia, dénote déjà son intérêt pour …

al-Nūrī

(723 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, Abū l-Ḥusayn (ou Abū l-Ḥasan) Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Bag̲h̲awī, mystique d’origine k̲h̲urāsānienne né (probablement vers 226/840, car il rencontra Ḏh̲ū l-Nūn [ q.v.]) à Bag̲h̲dād, où il passa la majeure partie de sa vie. Il mourut en 295/907. Les renseignements les plus abondants sur ce personnage sont fournis par al-Sarrād̲j̲ et al-Kalābād̲h̲ī; les brèves biographies d’al-Sulamī et d’Abū Nuʿaym sont presque identiques, comme d’ailleurs les notices en persan d’Anṣārī et de Ḏj̲āmī. La biographie de ʿAṭṭār développe des…

Sabʿ

(917 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, Sabʿa (a.) sept, nombre d’une particulière importance dans la tradition sémitique aussi bien qu’iranienne; il combine le Trois spirituel et le Quatre matériel. Son histoire commence probablement à Babylone avec l’observation de quatre phases lunaires de sept jours chacune. Les sept planètes (y compris le soleil et la lune) ont régné sur la pensée humaine depuis l’antiquité. Chacune est associée à une couleur, une odeur et un caractère spécifiques. L’épopée persane de Niẓāmī (m. au début du VIIe/XIIIe siècle [ q.v.], Haft paykar est l’élaboration la plus poussée de ces idées.…

Raḳṣ

(1,409 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
(a.), danse. La notion de danse est regardée d’un mauvais oeil en Islam, car la danse est associée, dans l’histoire des religions en général, à l’extase. Elle place l’être humain en dehors de son comportement normal et le fait tournoyer, pour ainsi dire, autour d’un autre centre de gravité. Ce qui est sûr, c’est que les distractions des gens comme il faut au moyen âge islamique se terminaient souvent par de la musique et de la danse; I mais dans un contexte religieux, la danse, fondamentalement ¶ épiphénomène de la musique ou de la psalmodie, était censée s’opposer aux tendances …

S̲h̲ams-i Tabrīz(ī)

(856 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, nom donné à un derviche quelque peu énigmatique qui influença et transforma Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Rūmī [ q.v.], et dont le véritable nom était, selon Ḏj̲āmī. Nafaḥāt al-uns, éd. Nassau Lees, 535, S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Malīk-dād-i Tabrīzī. Ses écrits en prose, Maḳālāt, aussi bien que les notes du fils aîné de Rūmī, Sulṭān Walad [ q.v.], indiquent qu’il était un homme ayant un pouvoir spirituel irrésistible. Il devait avoir quarante ou cinquante ans lorsqu’il arriva à Konya le 26 d̲j̲umādā II 642/23 octobre 1244, mais on ne sait pratiquement rien…

Iḳbāl

(2,591 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
, Muḥammad , was born in 1873 (or more probably 1876) in Sialkot, Pand̲j̲āb. During his studies in Lahore he became acquainted with Sir Thomas Arnold, who was partly responsible for his coming to England in 1905. In Cambridge, Iḳbāl, already a noted romantic and Indian-nationalist poet in Urdu, studied philosophy under the Hegelian J. M. E. McTaggart, and law. In 1907 he visited Germany and obtained his Ph. D. in Munich with F. Hommel. His thesis The development of metaphysics in Persia shows already his interest in Islamic mystical philosophy, which he …

Iqbāl, Muḥammad

(140 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie
[German Version] (Nov 9, 1877, Sialkot – Apr 21, 1938, Lahore), leading poet-philosopher in modern Islam. Iqbāl was schooled in English and German philosophy and was an admirer of J.W. v. Goethe and M.Ğ. Rūmī. In his Persian (6 vols.) and Urdu (3 vols.) poetry, he developed his dynamic worldview, in which love appears as the force that stengthens the individual on the path to God and wherein the defeat of Satan through continuous struggle plays an important role. In his lectures (1928), Iqbāl atte…

Pakistan

(2,270 words)

Author(s): Schimmel, Annemarie | Editors, the
Pakistan became an independent state on August 14, 1947. The idea of a Muslim area in the northwest of the subcontinent was first suggested and supported by Muhammad Iqbāl (1877–1938), the poet-philosopher of Indian Muslims, at the annual gathering of the All India Muslim League in Allahabad on December 30, 1930. 1. History Muslims (Islam) came to India in 711 and took over the lower Indus Valley up to Multan (now southern Pakistan). By 800 a second wave came and, from Ghaznī in present-day Afghanistan, set up Muslim rule in northwest India. Ben…

S̲h̲afāʿa

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Gimaret, D. | Schimmel, Annemarie
(a.), intercession, mediation. He who makes the intercession is called s̲h̲āfiʿ and s̲h̲afīʿ . The word is also used in other than theological language, e.g. in laying a petition before a king ( LʿA s.v.), in interceding for a debtor (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Istiḳrāḍ , 18). Very little is known of intercession in judicial procedure. In the Ḥadīt̲h̲ it is said: “He who by his intercession puts out of operation one of the ḥudūd Allāh is putting himself in opposition to God” (Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad , ii, 70, 82; cf. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Anbiyāʾ 54/11; Ḥudūd , 12). 1. In official Islam. The word is usually found in …

S̲h̲afāʿa

(2,543 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J. | Gimaret, D. | Schimmel, Annemarie
(a.), intercession; celui qui intercède s’appelle s̲h̲āfiʿ et s̲h̲afīʿ. Le mot s̲h̲afāʿa se rencontre aussi en dehors de l’emploi théologique, par exemple pour la présentation d’une requête à un roi ( Lisān, s.v.), pour l’intervention en faveur d’un débiteur (Buk̲h̲ārī, Istiḳrād, 18). Sur l’intercession dans une action judiciaire, nous ne savons que peu de chose. Dans le ḥadīt̲h̲ on trouve : «Celui qui, par son intercession, met obstacle à l’action d’un des ḥudūd Allāh s’oppose à Allāh» (Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, II, 70, 82; cf. Buk̲h̲ārī, Anbiyāʾ, 54/11, Ḥudūd, 12). 1. Dans l’Islam offic…

India

(4,173 words)

Author(s): Kiehnle, Catharina | Frasch, Tilman | Schimmel, Annemarie | Koschorke, Klaus
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Culture – III. Religious History – IV. History of Christianity I. General The designation “India,” Gk ἰνδός/ indós, Latinized as indus, goes back to Sanskrit sindhu (orig. “boundary”?) through the intermediary of Old Persian hindu; it is a designation of the River Sindhu and of the Indus region, from which Persian Hindūstān, “Place/territory of the Hindus,” is derived. The Indians themselves called the land (among other designations) Bhārata, “[Land of the] Descendants of Bhārata” (the l…

Muḥammad

(29,304 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Welch, A.T. | Schimmel, Annemarie | Noth, A. | Ehlert, Trude
, the Prophet of Islam. 1. The Prophet’s life and career. 2. The Prophet in popular Muslim piety. 3. The Prophet’s image in Europe and the West. 1. The Prophet’s life and career. Belief that Muḥammad is the Messenger of God ( Muḥammadun rasūlu ’llāh ) is second only to belief in the Oneness of God ( lā ilāha illā ’llāh ) according to the s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.], the quintessential Islamic creed. Muḥammad has a highly exalted role at the heart of Muslim faith. At the same time the Ḳurʾān and Islamic orthodoxy insist that he was fully human with no supernatural powers. That Muḥammad was one of the greate…

Muḥammad

(26,983 words)

Author(s): Buhl, F. | Welch, A. T. | Schimmel, Annemarie | Noth, A. | Ehlert, Trude
, le Prophète de l’Islam. I. — Sa vie et sa carrière. La croyance au fait que Muḥammad est le Messager de Dieu ( rasūlu llāh) vient seulement après celle qui concerne l’unicité de Dieu ( lā ilāh illā llāh) d’après la s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.], qui est la quintessence de la foi islamique, au cœur de laquelle Muḥammad a un rôle glorieux. En même temps, le Ḳurʾān et l’orthodoxie islamique insistent sur son caractère pleinement humain, sans pouvoirs surnaturels. Que Muḥammad soit une des plus grandes figures dans l’histoire du monde, étant donné l’impact mondial du mouvement qu’il a f…

Mug̲h̲als

(37,500 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J. | Islam, Riazul | Athar Ali, M. | Moosvi, Shireen | Moreland, W.H. | Et al.
an Indo-Muslim dynasty which ruled, latterly with decreasing effectiveness, 932-1274/1526-1858. 1. History. This article, like the section on History in hind, iv, above, aims at being no more than a guide to the numerous articles on the history of the Mug̲h̲al dynasty in India to be found elsewhere in the Encyclopaedia , and to relate these to a chronological framework. The Mug̲h̲als were given their first foothold in Indian territory in 800/1398 when Pīr Muḥammad, governor of Kābul and a grandson of Tīmūr, attacked Uččh and Multān, and established a gov…

Mug̲h̲als

(36,565 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J. | Islam, Riazul | Athar Ali, M. | Moosvi, Shireen | Moreland, W. H. | Et al.
(Mogols), dynastie indomusulmane qui régna de 932 à 1274/1526-1858 (de moins en moins effectivement vers la fin). — I. Histoire. — II. Relations extérieures. — III. Organisation administrative et sociale. — IV. Économie et commerce intérieur. — V. Commerce et relations commerciales entre l’Europe et l’Inde mug̲h̲ale. — VI. Vie religieuse. ¶ — VII. Architecture. — VIII. Tapis et tissus. — IX. Peinture et arts appliqués. — X. Littérature. — XI Numismatique. I. Histoire. Le présent article, comme la section relative à l’histoire sous Hind (IV), ne vise qu’à orienter vers les nombr…