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Marculus

(114 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] Donatist ( Donatus [1]) bishop in Numidia, maltreated with a delegation of bishops in Vegesela (Numidia) by Macarius. M. was taken prisoner and - probably on 29 Nov. 347 AD - executed, according to the Donatist Acts [1] by being pushed off a high cliff. He was buried as a martyr in Nova Petra and revered by the Donatists. There is archaeological evidence for a memoria domni Marchuli in Vegesela (Ksar el Kelb in Algeria). Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 J.-L. Maier, Le dossier du donatisme, Bd. 1: Des origines à la mort de Constance II (303-361), 1987, 275-291 2 A. …

Schism

(649 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] (σχίσμα/ schísma, 'split'). Through the course of the history of Christianity a usage has come to prevail which makes sense at first sight. Heresy is a doctrinal view which differs from the orthodox. Schism, however, denotes a split (in the Church) which originates in personal, disciplinary, political or other differences that are not dogmatic (or doctrinal in the narrower sense). Heresy thus refers to a deviation from truth, schism from unity. On individual schisms, cf. Damasus, Donatus [1], Felix [5] II, Lucifer [2], Melitius of Lycopolis, Montanism, Novatianus. In…

Monnica

(317 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] (AD 331/2 to 387). Mother of Augustinus, from a Christian family in North Africa. She had at least four children from her marriage to the non-Christian Patricius in Thagaste. Our knowledge of M. is limited to what we know through Augustine. Even her epitaph is only a testimonial to her connection with her son (and the beginnings of her veneration as a saint) [1]. M.'s religious influence on her husband and children must have been considerable. Augustine's Confessiones depicts her as a constant - sometimes undesired - companion of her son (Aug. Conf. 1,6,7-…

Grattius

(324 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] Writer of an informative Latin  didactic poem about the  hunt ( Cynegetica = Cyn.) in several bks., of which one fragment of 541 hexameters from the first bk. is extant. G. was perhaps of Faliscan ( Falisci) origin (Cyn. 40). Ovid mentions him and his didactic poem in the Epistulae ex Ponto (4,16,35); in the case of the spelling Gratius attested by the Ovid MSS, it is probably a matter of an historically incorrect variation. As the Cyn. presuppose the ‘Georgica’ of  Vergilius [5] and the ‘Metamorphoses’ of  Ovidius, we can limit their origin precisely to …

Macarius

(104 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[English version] Einer der beiden Sondergesandten des Kaisers Constans [1], die nach 343 n.Chr. in Nordafrika Spendengelder verteilen und die Spaltung zw. Donatisten (Donatus [1]) und Katholiken beenden sollten. Während entsprechender Maßnahmen kam es in Bagai und Vegesela (Numidien) zu gewalttätigen Ausschreitungen, in deren Verlauf auch die Hinrichtung des Marculus erfolgte. Die Aktion erhielt später von donatistischer Seite den Schimpfnamen Macariana tempora (“Macarianische Zeiten”) als Inbegriff der katholisch-kaiserlichen Verfolgung der Donatisten. …

Marculus

(103 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[English version] Donatistischer (Donatus [1]) Bischof in Numidien, mit einer Delegation von Bischöfen in Vegesela (Numidien) von Macarius mißhandelt. M. wurde gefangengenommen und - wahrscheinlich am 29. Nov. 347 n.Chr. - hingerichtet, gemäß der donatistischen Märtyrerakte [1] durch Hinabstoßen von einem hohen Felsen. Als Märtyrer in Nova Petra bestattet und von den Donatisten verehrt. Eine memoria domni Marchuli ist arch. nachgewiesen in Vegesela (Ksar el Kelb in Algerien). Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 J.-L. Maier, Le dossier du donatisme, Bd. 1: D…

Monnica

(307 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[English version] (331/2 bis 387 n.Chr.). Mutter des Augustinus, aus einer christl. Familie Nordafrikas. Aus der Ehe mit dem Nichtchristen Patricius in Thagaste gingen mindestens vier Kinder hervor. Unsere Kenntnis M.s beschränkt sich auf das, was wir durch Augustinus wissen. Auch ihr Grabepitaph ist nur ein Zeugnis für die Verbindung mit dem Sohn (und der Anfänge ihrer Verehrung als einer Heiligen) [1]. M.s rel. Einfluß auf Mann und Kinder muß erheblich gewesen sein. Augustinus' Confessiones zeigen sie als ständige - manchmal unerwünschte - Begleiterin ihres Sohnes (…

Macarius

(751 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
(Μακάριος; Makários). I. Greek [German version] [1] Spartiate, in 426/5 BC in the council of war of Eurylochus Spartiate, in 426/5 BC he took part in the council of war of Eurylochus [2] in the campaign of the armed forces of Spartan allies against Naupactus and the Acarnanians and fell in battle at Olpae (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and his Use of Military Surprise, 1993, 27ff. [German version] [2] M. of Alexandria Monk, 4th cent. AD According to the Historia monachorum in Aegypto [1. § 23], a certain M. (4th …

Nebridius

(290 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis, AD 365 Praefectus praetorio Orientis in AD 365. N. was born in Etruria. His career led through lesser offices, held prior to 354, via the comitiva Orientis 354-358 and the quaestura (sacri palatii) at the court of the Caesar Iulianus [11] 359(?)-360 and finally to the Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul (Lib. Epist. 1315). N. attained this office in 360, but withdrew into private life as a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II in 361, when Julian was readying himself for a campaign again…

Nebridius

(273 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis, 365 n.Chr. Praefectus praetorio Orientis im J. 365 n.Chr. N. wurde in Etrurien geb. Seine Laufbahn führte ihn über kleinere Ämter, die er vor 354 innehatte, über die comitiva Orientis 354-358 und die quaestura (sacri palatii) am Hof des Caesars Iulianus [11] 359(?)-360 schließlich zur gallischen Praetorianerpraefektur (Lib. epist. 1315). N. trat dieses Amt 360 an, zog sich aber - als loyaler Gefolgsmann des Constantius [2] II. 361 ins Privatleben zurück, als Iulianus zum Feldzug geg…