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Monnica

(317 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] (AD 331/2 to 387). Mother of Augustinus, from a Christian family in North Africa. She had at least four children from her marriage to the non-Christian Patricius in Thagaste. Our knowledge of M. is limited to what we know through Augustine. Even her epitaph is only a testimonial to her connection with her son (and the beginnings of her veneration as a saint) [1]. M.'s religious influence on her husband and children must have been considerable. Augustine's Confessiones depicts her as a constant - sometimes undesired - companion of her son (Aug. Conf. 1,6,7-…

Marculus

(114 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] Donatist ( Donatus [1]) bishop in Numidia, maltreated with a delegation of bishops in Vegesela (Numidia) by Macarius. M. was taken prisoner and - probably on 29 Nov. 347 AD - executed, according to the Donatist Acts [1] by being pushed off a high cliff. He was buried as a martyr in Nova Petra and revered by the Donatists. There is archaeological evidence for a memoria domni Marchuli in Vegesela (Ksar el Kelb in Algeria). Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 J.-L. Maier, Le dossier du donatisme, Bd. 1: Des origines à la mort de Constance II (303-361), 1987, 275-291 2 A. …

Schism

(649 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] (σχίσμα/ schísma, 'split'). Through the course of the history of Christianity a usage has come to prevail which makes sense at first sight. Heresy is a doctrinal view which differs from the orthodox. Schism, however, denotes a split (in the Church) which originates in personal, disciplinary, political or other differences that are not dogmatic (or doctrinal in the narrower sense). Heresy thus refers to a deviation from truth, schism from unity. On individual schisms, cf. Damasus, Donatus [1], Felix [5] II, Lucifer [2], Melitius of Lycopolis, Montanism, Novatianus. In…

Grattius

(324 words)

Author(s): Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] Writer of an informative Latin  didactic poem about the  hunt ( Cynegetica = Cyn.) in several bks., of which one fragment of 541 hexameters from the first bk. is extant. G. was perhaps of Faliscan ( Falisci) origin (Cyn. 40). Ovid mentions him and his didactic poem in the Epistulae ex Ponto (4,16,35); in the case of the spelling Gratius attested by the Ovid MSS, it is probably a matter of an historically incorrect variation. As the Cyn. presuppose the ‘Georgica’ of  Vergilius [5] and the ‘Metamorphoses’ of  Ovidius, we can limit their origin precisely to …

Macarius

(751 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
(Μακάριος; Makários). I. Greek [German version] [1] Spartiate, in 426/5 BC in the council of war of Eurylochus Spartiate, in 426/5 BC he took part in the council of war of Eurylochus [2] in the campaign of the armed forces of Spartan allies against Naupactus and the Acarnanians and fell in battle at Olpae (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and his Use of Military Surprise, 1993, 27ff. [German version] [2] M. of Alexandria Monk, 4th cent. AD According to the Historia monachorum in Aegypto [1. § 23], a certain M. (4th …

Nebridius

(290 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis, AD 365 Praefectus praetorio Orientis in AD 365. N. was born in Etruria. His career led through lesser offices, held prior to 354, via the comitiva Orientis 354-358 and the quaestura (sacri palatii) at the court of the Caesar Iulianus [11] 359(?)-360 and finally to the Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul (Lib. Epist. 1315). N. attained this office in 360, but withdrew into private life as a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II in 361, when Julian was readying himself for a campaign again…