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Religious Instruction

(505 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] Classes in religion that exclude denominational or confessional bias are designated as religious instruction (Ger. Religionskunde). Such classes are based on comparative religious studies and not on theology. In terms of content, religious instruction looks at widespread religious patterns of interpretation that have some effect on politics, on the basis of observation of religious rites, doctrines, and daily practice (cf. recommendation of the European Parliament no. 1202, 1993), in order “to w…


(5,668 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert | Schütt, Hans-Peter | Grube, Andreas | Herms, Eilert | Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] I. Concept 1. The origin of the Latin word persona (“mask, role, status”) is unknown; it may be Etruscan. The philologist Gavius Bassus (1st cent. bce) traced the “origin” of the word to the function of the ancient theater mask, namely that of a megaphone which concentrated the voice and caused it to “sound through” ( per-sonare; cf. Gellius, Noctes Atticae V 7) in a more sonorous way. The corresponding Greek word is πρόσωπον/ prósōpon, “face, mask, front.” The word “persona” is employed in grammar, rhetoric, jurisprudence, and philosophy. What the mode…


(1,558 words)

Author(s): Harbeck-Pingel, Bernd | Puca, Rosa Maria | Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] I. Ethics – II. Psychology – III. Practical Theology I. Ethics The history of the concepts “motive” and “motivation” is accompanied by the related term “drive.” Its significance is primarily philosophical; its theological relevance is only secondary. In the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the term motivum as a translation of κίνησις/ kínēsis is an appropriation from the Aristotelian laws of motion. Aquinas employs this concept in order to effect precise distinctions ( Summa theologiae I/II, q. 9): the intellect moves the will in presenting its object to…

Ethics Education

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] The school's task of education (Education/Formation) can be understood as an intended aid to inculturation with the aim of facilitating self-determination. Besides scientific and environmental knowledge and skills, this entails ideal values and standards (location of purpose, morality) which must be chosen and also defended in cases of conflict, according to a person's insight. Up to …