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Parlamentarismus

(822 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[English Version] . Oberbegriff für Theorie und Praxis der Interessenvermittlung zw. Bürgern und Regierung, in der die vom Stimmvolk gewählte Volksvertretung, das Parlament, kraft geschriebener oder ungeschriebener Verfassung maßgeblich oder ausschließlich die Gesetzgebung (Gesetz: V., Legislative) ausübt, den Staatshaushalt festlegt, für verantwortliche Interessenartikulation und Interessenbündelung sorgt, Personal für polit. Führungspositionen rekrutiert, die Regierung kontrolliert und, so im pa…

Lobby

(448 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[German Version] The lobby is the entrance hall of parliament beyond which non-parliamentarians may not proceed, and the designation of the place, the interest groups, and the activities of stakeholders (lobbyists) that aim to influence the deeds and non-deeds of officeholders (esp. of the legislative and of the executive authority [Power]) in order to further specific interests. As a rule, the process of exerting influence occurs in a formal or informal manner, especially through the conveying of…

Participation, Political

(468 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[German Version] In public political parlance, participation means sharing and taking part in political will formation and decision-making on matters to be settled by the community. Various forms of political participation are distinguished, according to whether it is anchored in a written constitution or law, or unwritten; whether aggressive or non-aggressive in form; having, or not having, legal status; and having, or not having, legitimate status. The distinction between conventional and unconventional political participation (Barnes & Kaase et al.) is also based on st…

Parliamentarianism

(965 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[German Version] Generic term for the theory and practice of intermediation of interests between citizens and their government in which a parliament, the body representing the people, exercises significant or exclusive legislative power (Law and legislation: V; Legislative), writes the budget, oversees responsible articulation and aggregation of interests, recruits personnel for positions of political leadership, monitors the government, and – in contrast to a presidential system – chooses the government and can vote it out of office. In present-day constitutional democr…

Partizipation

(429 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[English Version] . Im polit.-öfftl. Sprachgebrauch meint P. das Teilnehmen und Teilhaben an der Willensbildung und Entscheidungsfindung über gemeinschaftlich zu regelnde Angelegenheiten. Man unterscheidet verschiedene Formen der polit. P.: nach Verankerung in Verfassung oder Gesetz verfaßte und nicht verfaßte Typen, nach der Form aggressive und nichtaggressive, nach Rechtsstatus legale und nichtlegale und nach Legitimitätsstatus legitime und illegitime. Auf dem Rechts- und dem Legitimitätsstatus …

Plebiszit

(303 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[English Version] . Volksbeschluß, Bez. für Formen unmittelbarer (direktdemokratischer) Abstimmung des Stimmvolkes (Demokratie) über öfftl. Angelegenheiten. P. können Personalfragen regeln, z.B. die Direktwahl des Staatsoberhauptes, oder Sachfragen betreffen wie die Annahme oder Ablehnung einer Verfassung oder Verfassungsänderung, eines Gesetzes, eines Antrages auf Parlamentsauflösung oder einer Initiativakte. Nach den wichtigsten Instrumenten unterscheidet man zw. Volksentscheid, Volksbefragung u…

Plebiscite

(348 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[German Version] is the term used for a decision made by the people concerning public matters via direct choice by the electorate (Democracy). Plebiscites can settle appointments, as in the direct election of the head of state, or matters such as the acceptance or rejection of a constitution, a constitutional change, a law, a petition to dissolve a parliament, or an initiative. Among the most important forms, distinctions are made between popular decision, popular consultation, and popular wish. T…