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Latin inscriptions

(7,273 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht I. History of Finds (CT) [German version] A. Historical Overview (CT) The fate of Latin inscriptions (LI) is quite basically determined by their respective inscriptional supports. They run the gamut from major buildings, which never completely perished owing to their sheer bulk, and whose inscriptions were omnipresent from Antiquity down to modern times (for instance the Mausoleum of Augustus at Rome, documented by Suet. Aug. 101, 4, the Mirabilia urbis Romae in the 12th cent., and Baldassare Peruzzi's sketches from the 16th cent. [10; 9. 67]), to the instrume…

Sueius

(72 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Roman poet of the late Republican Period, author of rural idylls in Alexandrian style ( Moretum, Pulli, Nidus, cf. Charisius, Gramm. p. 132 B.) and a poem also in hexameters; he can hardly be identical to the grammarian Sevius Nicanor or the equestrian M. Seius. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography Fragments: J. Granarolo, L'époque néotérique, in: ANRW I 3, 1973, 291f., 331-334  Courtney, 112-117  FPL3 (Blänsdorf), 122-126  A. Traglia, Poetae novi, 21962, 4f., 122-124.

Virgilius Maro

(605 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] 'Pen-name' [8.16f., 26; 13.75f.] of a Latin grammarian of the 7th cent. ( terminus ante quem is AD 658, cf. [10]) and therefore a younger contemporary of Isidorus [9]. His origin ("Land north or south of the Pyrenees" [9.15; 12]) and the area in which he worked (Ireland: [5; 11]; England: [7]; cf. in contrast [10]) are disputed. It may be that VM was a converted Jew ([9.14f.], otherwise [8.22-26; 11.56-61]). Works: (1) Commentarii de mundi creatione adversus paganos ('On Creation against the pagans'; Epist. 7,4); and (2/3) twelve or fifteen instructional l…

Urbanus

(82 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] M. Damatius U., author of a (4th-cent. AD) commentary on the poems of Vergilius, which deals with earlier commentators (Cornutus [4], Velius [3] Longus) and - in addition to Carminius and Donatus [3] - constitutes the foundation of Servius's [2] commentary; its influence on Servius is likely to have exceeded the 11 quotations that survive. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography S. Timpanaro, Per la storia della filologia virgiliana antica, 1986, 129-134 R. Kaster, Guardians of Language, 1988, 438 P. L. Schmidt, in: HLL 5, § 526.3.

Volcacius

(263 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] V. Sedigitus Author of a didactic poem, 2nd cent. BC Author of a Latin didactic poem in senarii (Metre [VI.C.3].) on the history of literature (Plin. HN. 11,244), probably from the end of the 2nd cent. BC. Four fragments (in total 20 verses) are preserved (probably by way of Varro, De poetis) of the genre of the palliata (Comedy [II.C.]). They treat biographies of poets (fr. 2 FPL = 3 GRF on the death of Terentius [III 1]), questions of authenticity (in Gell. NA 3,3,1 on Plautus; fr. 3/4 on the alleged co-operat…

Circles, literary

(764 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] When referring to antiquity, the modern term ‘literary circle’ describes the Maecenatic patronage of contemporary literature and the encouragement of young poets; however, generalizations and exaggerations (in the sense of the middle-class reading circles of the 19th cent.) have to be avoided (cf. gen.  Literary activity II.). Initially, these circles signify an acculturative boost following the conquest of Greece in the early 2nd cent. BC.   Nobiles such as M.  Fulvius [I 15] Nobilior [1. 536 f.] and L.  Aemilius [I 32] Paull…

Votienus Montanus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Famous (Tac. Ann. 4,42,1) orator of the early Imperial period from Narbo (modern Narbonne). Accused in his home city by P. Vinicius [II 4], he had to answer to Tiberius [1] (Sen. Controv. 7,5,12); convicted in AD 25 of insulting the emperor (Tac. loc.cit.) and banished, he died in 27 (Jer. Chron. p. 173b H.) or later [3]. Despite his polemics against the fashion for declamationes (Sen. Controv. 9, pr. 9,6,10), V. was not able to entirely withdraw from the activities of the school, as citations in Seneca [1] the Elder show ( ibid. 9,1-6; 10,2-3). His style was considered s…

Vacca

(127 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] It is only from the 12th cent. onwards that traces of a V. as an expositor Lucani are found in a commentary on the poet Lucanus [1]. The scholia ascribed to him are characterized by mediaeval amplifications of earlier material. Therefore, not unlike Cornutus in the case of Phocas, Persius and Iuvenalis (cf. Cornutus [4]), V. cannot be considered either as an ancient commentator on Lucan or as the author of the Vita at the beginning of the Adnotationes super Lucanum ([1; 2]; contra [3]); we are probably dealing with a mediaeval mystification. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliog…

Terentianus Maurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] African grammarian around the middle of the 3rd cent. AD (later, acc. to [4]), author of three didactic poems, dedicated to metre, in the tradition of the derivation theory (Caesius [II 8] Bassus): a) De litteris (v. 85-278; articulation of the letters of the alphabet), b) De syllabis (v. 279-1299; metrical qualities of letters and syllables), c) De metris (v. 1300-2981; on metre itself), according to [2. 566 f.] the praefatio (V. 1-84) also belonged to this. Other (lyrical?) poems are lost. The instructive poem, much used in late Antiquity, rema…

Togata

(348 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Type of Roman comedy; unlike the variation later called palliata , it was not associated with Athens but with a Roman setting. By the term togata (= play with Roman private individuals in everyday dress; toga ), it is distinguished from praetexta (= action by persons in political/military official dress), cf. Hor. Ars P 288; Varro suggested to replace togata with tabernaria and to use it as a collective term for all plays in a Roman setting [2], but this usage did not gain general acceptance (but cf.  Juv. 1,3). While Roman and Greek elements were used alike in the c…

Limes; Limes studies

(6,634 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schallmayer, Egon
[English version] With its nearly 550 km, the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes is one of the most significant monuments of early history. Starting from Rheinbrohl, it crossed the present-day German states of Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. The term Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes itself was introduced in the 19th cent., being derived from the Roman provinces of Germania Superior  and Rhaetia, whose eastern and northern borders respectively were reached by the Limes, after numerous changes, by the mid 2nd cent. Impressive remains of this Roman border…

Titinius

(466 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Comedy writer, end of the 3rd / beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Roman comedy writer, in the general opinion of scholars a contemporary of Plautus (second half of the 3rd/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC), according to [7], however, from the late 2nd cent. BC. In the latter case, it is not T. but Afranius [4] who would have been the archegetes of the Roman national comedy ( fabula togata ); T. would have been responsible for its flourishing. In 15 plays proved to be his he distinguished himself, according to Varro [2] (in Char. 315…

Turnus

(290 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] King of the Rutuli Mythical king of the Rutuli, son of Daunus [2] and Venilia, brother of Iuturna, from the city of Ardea; reigning when Aeneas [1] arrived in Italy. According to a (probably earlier ) tradition he and Latinus [1] fight against the invading Aeneas. When Latinus falls, T. flees to Mezentius, and the two take up the battle again; in the end T. himself and Aeneas fall (Cato HRR fr. 9-10). In another variant he fights against Latinus and Aeneas, because, having original…

Valgius

(303 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Valg(i)us Father-in-law (Cic. Leg. agr. 3,3) of Servilius [I 26] Rullus. Under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla V. had appropriated estates in Ager Hirpinus and in Casinum (ibid. 2,69; 3,8-14). He may be identical to the C. Quinctius Valgus recorded as patronus (D.) of the Hirpinian Aeclanum, as quinquennalis of a town near Frigento and as a duumvir of Pompeii and in Casinum (ILLRP 523; 565; 598; 645; 646). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography P. Harvey, Socer Valgus, Valgii and C. Quinctius Valgus, in: E. Borza, R. Carrubba (eds.), Classics and the Classical Trad., 197…

Verrius

(729 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Roman nomen gentile, perhaps of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 287), first recorded in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] M. V. Flaccus Latin grammarian, Augustan era [German version] I. Life V. was the leading grammarian of the generation after Varro [2], born in Praeneste after 60 BC. Suetonius' biography (Gram. 17) reveals competition with Varro: the freedman ( libertinus) V. stands in opposition to the Roman equestrian ( eques Romanus), the grammarian to the philosopher and poet ( philosophus et poeta), the politician and soldier. V. became famous through h…

Trabea

(230 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Festal form of the toga Roman garment, a festal form of the toga , differing from it only in colour. It was dyed purple-red, with scarlet or white stripes ( clavi) and was worn on official occasion by equestrians and Salii [2]. Originally it was the dress of Roman kings and was then taken over by consuls, but they wore it only on special occasions (e.g. opening of the Temple of Janus). Other wearers of the trabea in the early period were the augures and the Flamines Dialis and Martialis (priests of Jupiter and Mars), who then wore the toga praetexta from the 3rd cent. BC onw…

Serenus

(635 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Quinctius S. Sammonicus Author of a collection of recipes (also Quintus Serenius). Author of the Liber Medicinalis, a collection of therapeutic recipes which can be neither dated nor identified; Q. has at times been identified with S. [2] Sammonicus or with his son (Septimius [II 6] S. Sammonicus; both died at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD). The collection (dating between the 2nd and 4th cents. AD) cannot be chronologically ordered with any accuracy. It is written in hexameters and contain…

Sulpicia

(568 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Cornelius Lentulus Cruscellio, 1st cent. BC Wife of Cornelius Lentulus Cruscellio (MRR 2, 391), who after having been proscribed in 43 BC, fled to Sex. Pompeius [I 5] in Sicily. Dressed as a servant she followed him into exile (Val. Max. 6,7,3, App. B Civ. 4,39). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Poet in the Corpus Tibullianum Granddaughter of Servius Sulpicius [I 23] (cf. [3]), niece of M. Valerius Messala Corvinus. Author of a small collection of poems in the Corpus Tibullianum (3,13-18) in which she expresses her love for a man whom…

Competitions, artistic

(3,335 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Paulsen, Thomas (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] I. Stage competitions Competitions, which included the   skēnḗ (the stage and the podium in front of it for the actor's appearance) in Greek theatre, that is dramatic performances. Originally, the skēnḗ was away from the orchḗstra ( Theatre I) and was used only for changing costumes and masks; it probably was not moved into the audience's view and integrated into the play until 458 BC with the ‘Orestia’ of  Aeschylus [1]. Nevertheless, early dramatic competitions are also thought to have been staged. Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) A. Greece [German version] 1. Developm…

Turpilius

(289 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Comic poet, 2nd cent. BC Roman comic poet in the palliata genre, younger contemporary of Terentius [III 1], died according to Hier. Chron. p. 148 Helm 104 BC. Fragments survive of 13 plays with uniformly Greek titles; his main source was Menander [4]. With Caecilius [III 6] and Terence, who was dramaturgically close to him, T. represents the increasingly Hellenizing and Classicizing development of palliata, whereas multiplicity of metre and colour of language separate him from the stylistic purity of Terence and rather link him to Plaut…
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