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Votienus Montanus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Famous (Tac. Ann. 4,42,1) orator of the early Imperial period from Narbo (modern Narbonne). Accused in his home city by P. Vinicius [II 4], he had to answer to Tiberius [1] (Sen. Controv. 7,5,12); convicted in AD 25 of insulting the emperor (Tac. loc.cit.) and banished, he died in 27 (Jer. Chron. p. 173b H.) or later [3]. Despite his polemics against the fashion for declamationes (Sen. Controv. 9, pr. 9,6,10), V. was not able to entirely withdraw from the activities of the school, as citations in Seneca [1] the Elder show ( ibid. 9,1-6; 10,2-3). His style was considered s…

Vacca

(127 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] It is only from the 12th cent. onwards that traces of a V. as an expositor Lucani are found in a commentary on the poet Lucanus [1]. The scholia ascribed to him are characterized by mediaeval amplifications of earlier material. Therefore, not unlike Cornutus in the case of Phocas, Persius and Iuvenalis (cf. Cornutus [4]), V. cannot be considered either as an ancient commentator on Lucan or as the author of the Vita at the beginning of the Adnotationes super Lucanum ([1; 2]; contra [3]); we are probably dealing with a mediaeval mystification. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliog…

Terentianus Maurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] African grammarian around the middle of the 3rd cent. AD (later, acc. to [4]), author of three didactic poems, dedicated to metre, in the tradition of the derivation theory (Caesius [II 8] Bassus): a) De litteris (v. 85-278; articulation of the letters of the alphabet), b) De syllabis (v. 279-1299; metrical qualities of letters and syllables), c) De metris (v. 1300-2981; on metre itself), according to [2. 566 f.] the praefatio (V. 1-84) also belonged to this. Other (lyrical?) poems are lost. The instructive poem, much used in late Antiquity, rema…

Togata

(348 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Type of Roman comedy; unlike the variation later called palliata , it was not associated with Athens but with a Roman setting. By the term togata (= play with Roman private individuals in everyday dress; toga ), it is distinguished from praetexta (= action by persons in political/military official dress), cf. Hor. Ars P 288; Varro suggested to replace togata with tabernaria and to use it as a collective term for all plays in a Roman setting [2], but this usage did not gain general acceptance (but cf.  Juv. 1,3). While Roman and Greek elements were used alike in the c…

Trabea

(230 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Festal form of the toga Roman garment, a festal form of the toga , differing from it only in colour. It was dyed purple-red, with scarlet or white stripes ( clavi) and was worn on official occasion by equestrians and Salii [2]. Originally it was the dress of Roman kings and was then taken over by consuls, but they wore it only on special occasions (e.g. opening of the Temple of Janus). Other wearers of the trabea in the early period were the augures and the Flamines Dialis and Martialis (priests of Jupiter and Mars), who then wore the toga praetexta from the 3rd cent. BC onw…

Limes; Limes studies

(6,634 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schallmayer, Egon
[English version] With its nearly 550 km, the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes is one of the most significant monuments of early history. Starting from Rheinbrohl, it crossed the present-day German states of Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. The term Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes itself was introduced in the 19th cent., being derived from the Roman provinces of Germania Superior  and Rhaetia, whose eastern and northern borders respectively were reached by the Limes, after numerous changes, by the mid 2nd cent. Impressive remains of this Roman border…

Turpilius

(289 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Comic poet, 2nd cent. BC Roman comic poet in the palliata genre, younger contemporary of Terentius [III 1], died according to Hier. Chron. p. 148 Helm 104 BC. Fragments survive of 13 plays with uniformly Greek titles; his main source was Menander [4]. With Caecilius [III 6] and Terence, who was dramaturgically close to him, T. represents the increasingly Hellenizing and Classicizing development of palliata, whereas multiplicity of metre and colour of language separate him from the stylistic purity of Terence and rather link him to Plaut…

Varro

(7,114 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Mentioned in Josephus, Bl. Mentioned in Jos. BI 1,398 as ἡγεμών ( hēgemṓn) of Syria, c. 25-23 BC. Identification uncertain. Most recently [1. 17 f.]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Da̧browa, The Governors of Roman Syria, 1998. [German version] [2] V. Terentius, M. (Reatinus) Roman polymath author, 116-27 BC The most important Roman polymath author. M. Terentius Varro: Works     No. (in text)     Title (Latin)     English title or subject    State of preservation1     Edition; Testimonia; Catalogus Hieronymi2 (=  C)     1 (II 5)     Aetia     Ori…
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