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Charixenus

(231 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίξενος; Charíxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Aetolian League in 281/0 and 270/69 BC C. from Trichonium (Aetolia). In 288/7 BC, 281/0 and 270/69 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 5, 14, 54) [1. 267 note 4]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Strategos of the Aetolian League, 3rd cent. BC Aetolian; son of Cydrion. In 260 BC hipparch (IG IX2 18,18); 255/4, 246/5, 241/0 and 234/3 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 3 B). In the latter role, in 246/5 he invited Greek cities to celebrate the newly organized festival of the  Sote…

Pentekoste

(333 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πεντηκοστή/ pentēkostḗ, the 'fiftieth') was a duty at the rate of two per cent. There is evidence of pentekostaí in many Greek cities, such as Athens, Epidaurus, Troezen, Cyparissia, Ceos, Delos, Cimolos (SEG 44,710 Z.31), Erythrae, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, in the Hermias region and in the cities of Upper Egypt, as an import and export duty raised ad valorem on all goods. Before ships were loaded or unloaded goods had to be declared to the πεντηκοστολόγοι ( pentēkostológoi). In Athens the tax on foreign trade amounted to one per cent until the Peloponnesia…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. …

Phayllus

(158 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάϋλλος/ Pháÿllos). [German version] [1] Phocian strategos (4th cent. BC) A Phocian (Phocis) stratēgós, who was dispatched with 7000 soldiers to support Lycophron [3] of Pherae against  Philip [4] II of Macedonia during the third of the Sacred Wars in 353 BC, but suffered a defeat. After the death of his brother Onomarchus he assumed supreme command over the Phocians as stratēgòs autokrátōr and kept Philip from Thermopylae with Spartan, Athenian and Achaean help and mercenaries, whom he rewarded with treasures from Delphic temples. P. took the war to Boeo…

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Ergocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐργοκλῆς; Ergoklês). Athenian strategos. In 404/3 BC, he joined the democrats in Phyle. In 390/89, he operated as a strategos together with Thrasybulus in the Hellespont and on the coast of Asia Minor. After his return, he was indicted for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of authority and sentenced to death; his assets were confiscated (Lys. 28). Since the embezzled money was never found, there were suspicions that Philocrates, trierarch and treasurer under E., had taken possession of this money (Lys. 29). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Androclidas

(156 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνδροκλείδας; Androkleídas). Prominent politician in Thebes. Belonged to the group around  Ismenias, who in 395 BC with Persian money was supposed to involve Sparta in a war, in order to force  Agesilaus [2] to pull out of Asia Minor and to weaken the friends of Sparta around  Leontiades in Thebes. On the advice of A., Thebes helped the Locrians in the war against the Phocians, which caused Sparta to become involved (Hell. Oxy. 20,1-2; 21 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-5; Plut. Lys. 27). When Sparta occupied the Cadmea in 382 and Leontiades had Ismenias taken prisoner, c. 300 …

Mnasippus

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνάσιππος/ Mnásippos). Spartan, was sent in 373 BC as naúarchos with a fleet against Cercyra, besieged the city and devastated its territories. The Athenians sent a fleet to the aid of Cercyra in 372, but by the time they arrived M. had already lost control of his mercenaries, owing to arrears in pay, and had been defeated. He fell in battle; Sparta discontinued the operation (Xen. Hell. 6,2,3-26; 31; Diod. 15,47,1-7) [1. 414]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, vol. 5, 1991.

Callimedon

(176 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλιμέδων; Kallimédōn). Athenian, son of Callicrates, pro-oligarchic politician. He was forced to leave Athens before 324 BC because of his pro-Macedonian position. In Megara he participated in the anti-constitutional activities of the Athenian émigrés, which is why Demosthenes [2] had an   eisangelia issued against him (Din. 1,94). During the  Lamian War C. stayed with  Antipater [1], upon whose orders he attempted to prevent the Peloponnesian states from joining the Hellenic League (Plut. Demosthen…

Agoratus

(121 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγόρατος; Agóratos). Metic in Piraeus, son of the slave Eumares. In 409 BC, A. was honoured because of his participation in the murder of the oligarch  Phrynichus (GHI2 85; IG I3 102). In 404, he denounced before the council the opponents of the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by  Theramenes. They were sentenced and executed for treason. Later A. received citizenship. After 400 he was brought before the court by means of   apagoge by a relative of one of the denounced individuals. Lysias wrote his thirteenth speech for the plaintiff. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Menexenus

(101 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μενέξενος; Menéxenos). [German version] [1] Son of Socrates A son of Socrates, still a child when his father died (Plat. Apo. 34d; Phd. 116b; Diog. Laert. 2,26). See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography A.-H. Chroust, A Comment On Aristotle's On Noble Birth, in: WS 85 N.F. 6, 1972, 19-32 PA 9975 Traill, PAA 644865. [German version] [2] Pupil of Socrates Pupil of the Sophist Ctesippus, a relative, and of Socrates, at whose death he was present (Plat. Lys. 206d; 211c; Plat. Phd. 59b). Plato named his dialogue ‘M.’ after him. See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bib…

Gryllus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Γρύλλος; Grýllos). [German version] [1] Father of Xenophon Athenian; father of  Xenophon. Traill, PAA 281935. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Xenophon, 4th cent. BC Son of  Xenophon, born after 399 BC. G. was brought up with his brother Diodorus in Sparta. In 362 both fought in the Athenian army as allies of Sparta; G. died fighting on horseback in a skirmish before the battle of Mantinea and was greatly honoured for this (Xen. Hell. 7,5,15-17; Diog. Laert. 2,52-55; Paus. 8,9,5). In Athens a pai…

Emporos

(443 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἔμπορος; émporos). In the Odyssey emporos is a passenger travelling on a foreign ship (Hom. Od. 2,319; 24,300f.). The merchant and shipowner trading in goods for profit, however, is called πρηκτήρ ( prēktḗr) or ἀρχὸς ναυτάων ( archós nautáōn) in Od. 8,161-164. In keeping with epic language travellers on land and sea are emporoi in Attic tragedies. Hesiod, however, already uses ἐμπορίη ( emporíē; Hes. Op. 646) to describe trading by ship and Herodotus also uses the word in that sense . In the Classical period emporos was used in particular of a merchant trading ove…

Rhinon

(186 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ῥίνων; Rhínōn). Attic politician, who was a member (Paredros) of the Hellēnotamíai in 417/6 BC and after the fall of the Thirty (Triakonta) was one of the committee of the Ten (Deka), which in 403 achieved reconciliation with the democrats in Piraeus and their return to the city. After democracy was restored, R. accounted for his actions in office and was elected stratēgós for 403/2 and treasurer of the goddess Athena and the other gods for the year 402/1 (ML 77,26 f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 38,3 f.; Aristot. fr. 611 Rose2; Isoc. Or. 18,6; 18,8; IG II/II2 1371). Aeschines [1]…

Tamia

(66 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμία/ tamía). In a well-to-do Greek house the tamia managed provisions and objects of value stored in the house, usually in a lockable closet ( Tamieion ; Thalamos ). Among the servants she had a special status and enjoyed the trust of the owner of the house (Hom. Od. 2,345; Pind. Ol. 13,7; Xen. Oec. 9,10-13; 10,10; Lib. Or. 16,47). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Apophora

(180 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποφορά; apophorá). Payment made by independently working slaves to their master (And. 1,38; Hyp. Ath. 9; 19; Theophr. Char. 30,15). Aeschines (1,97) set the amount of the apophora for a trained craftsman at two oboli daily and for the head of the ergasterion (ἡγημών; hēgēmṓn) at three. The revenue exceeding this amount remained with the slave, who was in this way able to earn money to purchase freedom and occasionally even acquire wealth (Xen. Ath. Pol. 1,11). It is impossible to estimate how large the number of independently working slaves was. Possibly, apophora also…

Theramenes

(497 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Θηραμένης/ Thēraménēs). Important Athenian politician and commander in the late 5th cent. BC; son of Hagnon [1]; teacher of Isocrates. T. participated in the oligarchic overthrow of Athens in 411, was a member of the council of 400 ( T etrakósioi ) and stratēgós . He opposed efforts to end the war against the Peloponnesian Alliance through granting serious concessions and played an essential role in tearing down the fortification of Eetionia which had been built under the oligarchs and which was suppose…

Corinthian War

(374 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A war named after the area of military operations around  Corinth; triggered by a border conflict between Locrians and Phocians in 395 BC, and brought to an end by the  King's Peace in 386. Sparta as an ally of the Locrians invaded the Phocians' ally Boeotia, which entered into a military alliance ( symmachia) with Athens. After the Spartan defeat outside  Haliartus in 395 (death of  Lysander), Corinth and Argos joined the Athenian-Theban symmachia (StV II2 225). An allied advance against Laconia in 394 ended with the defeat at the Nemea stream. The Spar…
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